How handheld use is connected to learning-related factors and academic achievement: Meta-analysis and research synthesis
Handhelds (e.g., cell phones, tablets) are promising learning tools, so they are now used in formal classroom settings in many educational institutions around the world. Previous meta-analyses have focused predominantly on the direct effects of handhelds on academic achievement. From a psychological...
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|Handhelds (e.g., cell phones, tablets) are promising learning tools, so they are now used in formal classroom settings in many educational institutions around the world. Previous meta-analyses have focused predominantly on the direct effects of handhelds on academic achievement. From a psychological perspective, however, achievement is the outcome of a complex and multifaceted process involving adaptive cognitions and motivation for learning. While these factors are also themselves desirable learning outcomes, previous meta-analyses have neglected the effect of handheld use on these outcomes. This meta-analysis is the first to synthesize how the use of handhelds in formal educational contexts is associated with a broad range of motivational (e.g., intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy) and other learning-related factors (cognitive load, satisfaction with learning, attitude towards learning) beyond academic achievement. The question how handhelds can be used most effectively in learning settings is also addressed by considering studies’ learning designs. We included 59 samples (N = 4259) in 58 studies published between 1998 and 2021. Only studies with an experimental or quasi-experimental research design providing pre- and/or post-test data and comparisons between experimental and if available control groups were included. We found overall moderate to high effect sizes for learning-related factors (gs between .41 and .77) and for academic achievement (g = .71). None of the presumed moderating variables (handheld types, learning designs, students’ age, gender) significantly explained heterogeneity in the respective outcomes. Our findings demonstrate a broad range of positive effects of handheld use thereby implying a multicriterial, sustainable impact on educational trajectories.
|Gefördert durch den Open-Access-Publikationsfonds der UB Marburg.