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The aim of the clinical and microbiological cohort study was to find out whether there is any correlation between oral health, vaginal issues and pregnancy complications. A total of 63 pregnant women were examined, of which 40 patients suffered from premature birth symptoms and 23 from other pregnancy complications. In addition to clinical assessment of the oral health parameters (BOP, GR, PLI, ST, AL) and gynaecological examinations, vaginal/cervical swabs were taken from the patients and analysed in a microbiological test using real-time PCR. In conjunction with this, the patients filled in questionnaires on oral hygiene and their general medical history.
The oral results indicate no significant difference between the women with and without pregnancy complications. Nor did a further subdivision of the two groups with regard to the premature birth symptoms factor show any significant differences in oral health. In contrast, the analysis of the vaginal swabs yielded significant results for the Gardnerella vaginalis bacterium. In other words, this bacterium was more frequently found in the swabs taken from the women in the premature birth group than in the group of women with other pregnancy complications. The gynaecological examinations showed a significant difference with regard to the ‘vaginal bleeding’ parameter. That means that women with premature births had previously suffered quite frequently from vaginal bleeding. However, no significant differences between the two study groups were identified through evaluation of the patients’ questionnaires on general medical history and oral hygiene.
In summary, it can be said that the present study did not show any correlation between pregnancy complications and the patients’ oral health. The parameters vaginal bleeding and the bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis do, however, indicate an increased risk of premature birth.