Pilotstudie zur nicht-invasiven Messung des intrinsischen PEEP bei Patienten mit stabiler chronisch obstruktiver Lungenerkrankung (COPD) unter nicht-invasiver Beatmung

Die nicht-invasive Beatmung wird in der Therapie des COPD-bedingten chronischen oder akuten respiratorischen Versagens eingesetzt. Durch Applikation von CPAP kann der intrinsische PEEP kompensiert und dadurch die respiratorische Muskelanstrengung reduziert werden. Eine exakte Messung des individuell...

Ausführliche Beschreibung

Gespeichert in:
Bibliographische Detailangaben
1. Verfasser: Alt, Yvonne
Beteiligte: Köhler, Ulrich (Prof. Dr. ) (BetreuerIn (Doktorarbeit))
Format: Dissertation
Sprache:Deutsch
Veröffentlicht: Philipps-Universität Marburg 2012
Innere Medizin
Schlagworte:
Online Zugang:PDF-Volltext
Tags: Tag hinzufügen
Keine Tags, Fügen Sie den ersten Tag hinzu!

1. Mehta, S., and N. S. Hill, 2001, Noninvasive ventilation: Am J Respir Crit Care Med, v. 163, no. 2, p. 540-577.


2. Gayan-Ramirez, G., and M. Decramer, 2002, Effects of mechanical ventilation on diaphragm function and biology: European Respiratory Journal, v. 20, no. 6, p. 1579-1586.


3. Purro, A., L. Appendini, G. A. De, M. Gudjonsdottir, C. F. Donner, and A. Rossi, 2000, Physiologic determinants of ventilator dependence in long-term mechanically ventilated patients: Am J Respir Crit Care Med, v. 161, no. 4 Pt 1, p. 1115-1123.


4. Martins, A. B., S. Tufik, and S. M. G. P. T. Moura, 2007, Physiopathology of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, v. 33, p. 93-100.


5. Kuhlmann, U., F. G. Bormann, and H. F. Becker, 2009, Obstructive sleep apnoea: clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment: Nephrol.Dial.Transplant., v. 24, no. 1, p. 8-14.


6. McEvoy, 2002, Effect of CPAP on intrinsic PEEP, inspiratory effort, and lung volume in severe stable COPD: Thorax, v. 57, no. 6, p. 533-539.


7. Sergysels, and V. Ninane, 2011, Sleep efficiency during sleep studies: results of a prospective study comparing home-based and in-hospital polysomnography: J.Sleep Res., v. 20, no. 1 Pt 2, p. 201-206.


8. El, K. C., D. Vanpee, L. Rousseau, J. Jamart, and L. Delaunois, 2003, Breathing frequency and use of expiratory muscles do influence the dynamic positive end-expiratory pressure: Respir.Med., v. 97, no. 4, p. 388-392.


9. Man, W. D., P. Kemp, J. Moxham, and M. I. Polkey, 2009, Skeletal muscle dysfunction in COPD: clinical and laboratory observations: Clinical Science, v. 117, no. 7, p. 251-264.


10. Jubran, A., 1999, Advances in Respiratory Monitoring During Mechanical Ventilation*: Chest, v. 116, no. 5, p. 1416-1425.


11. Koehnlein, T., and T. Welte, 2008, Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: Pathogenesis, Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Treatment: The American Journal of Medicine, v. 121, no. 1, p. 3-9.


12. Rechtschaffen and Kales. A manual of standardized terminology, techniques and scoring system for sleep stages of human subjects. Los Angeles: Brain Information Service/Brain Research Institute, University of California; 1968. 1968.


13. Kesper K. Autopeep-Studie: Auswertung der Studienaufzeichnung. 2009.


14. Larsen R., and Ziegenfuß T., 2009, Beatmung: Grundlagen und Praxis Springer Medizin Verlag Heidelberg. Literaturverzeichnis 79


15. Schoenhofer, B., and A. Jerrentrup, 2009, Beatmungskonzepte bei chronisch obstruktiver Lungenerkrankung (COPD): Dtsch med Wochenschr, v. 134, no. 18, p. 938-943.


16. Dierkesmann, R. et al., 2009, Beurteilungs-und Prognosekriterien bei COPD: Pneumologie, v. 63, no. 01, p. 49-55.


17. Stockley, R. A., D. Mannino, and P. J. Barnes, 2009, Burden and Pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, v. 6, no. 6, p. 524-526.


18. MacNee, W., J. Maclay, and D. McAllister, 2008, Cardiovascular Injury and Repair in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, v. 5, no. 8, p. 824-833.


19. Staats, B. A., H. W. Bonekat, C. D. Harris, and K. P. Offord, 1984, Chest wall motion in sleep apnea: Am.Rev.Respir.Dis., v. 130, no. 1, p. 59-63.


20. Filley, G. F., H. J. Beckwitt, J. T. Reeves, and R. S. Mitchell, 1968, Chronic obstructive bronchopulmonary disease. II. Oxygen transport in two clinical types: Am J Med, v. 44, no. 1, p. 26-38.


21. Widmer, F., 2011, Comorbidity in heart failure.: Ther.Umsch., v. 68, no. 2, p. 103-106.


22. Jenkinson, C., R. J. Davies, R. Mullins, and J. R. Stradling, 1999, Comparison of therapeutic and subtherapeutic nasal continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnoea: a randomised prospective parallel trial: The Lancet, v. 353, no. 9170, p. 2100-2105.


23. Newby, and N. J. Douglas, 2008, Continuous positive airway pressure improves vascular function in obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome: a randomised controlled trial: Thorax, v. 63, no. 7, p. 578-583.


24. Giles, T. L., T. J. Lasserson, B. J. Smith, J. White, J. Wright, and C. J. Cates, 2006, Continuous positive airways pressure for obstructive sleep apnoea in adults: Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev, no. 1, p. CD001106. Literaturverzeichnis 77


25. Rennard, S. I., and J. r. Vestbo, 2006, COPD: the dangerous underestimate of 15%: The Lancet, v. 367, no. 9518, p. 1216-1219.


26. Koczulla, R., N. Bittkowski, J. Andress, T. Greulich, S. Schroth, V. Kotke, C. Vogelmeier, and R. Bals, 2008, Das Deutsche Register fuer Personen mit Alpha-1-Antitrypsin-Mangel -eine Ressource fuer die Versorgungsforschung: Pneumologie, v. 62, no. 11, p. 655-658.


27. Borbély,A. Das Geheimnis des Schlafs. Neue Wege und Erkenntnisse der Forschung. 1984.


28. Hoffman, R. A., P. Ershowsky, and B. P. Krieger, 1989, Determination of auto- PEEP during spontaneous and controlled ventilation by monitoring changes in end-expiratory thoracic gas volume: Chest, v. 96, no. 3, p. 613-616.


29. Plant, P. K., J. L. Owen, and M. W. Elliott, 2000, Early use of non-invasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on general respiratory wards: a multicentre randomised controlled trial: Lancet, v. 355, no. 9219, p. 1931-1935.


30. Calderini, 1993, Effect of nasal pressure support ventilation and external PEEP on diaphragmatic activity in patients with severe stable COPD: Chest, v. 103, no. 1, p. 143-150.


31. Sackner, 1983, Effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on breathing patterns of normal subjects and intubated patients with respiratory failure: Crit Care Med., v. 11, no. 11, p. 859-867.


32. Maislin, and D. F. Dinges, 1993, Effects of one night without nasal CPAP treatment on sleep and sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: Am Rev Respir Dis., v. 147, no. 5, p. 1162-1168.


33. Winck, J. C., L. F. Azevedo, A. Costa-Pereira, M. Antonelli, and J. C. Wyatt, 2006, Efficacy and safety of non-invasive ventilation in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema--a systematic review and meta-analysis: Crit Care, v. 10, no. 2, p. R69.


34. Rello, J., D. A. Ollendorf, G. Oster, M. Vera-Llonch, L. Bellm, R. Redman, and M. H. Kollef, 2002, Epidemiology and Outcomes of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in a Large US Database*: Chest, v. 122, no. 6, p. 2115-2121.


35. Ref Type: Report Schonhofer, B., and S. Sortor-Leger, 2002, Equipment needs for noninvasive mechanical ventilation: European Respiratory Journal, v. 20, no. 4, p. 1029- 1036.


36. Nici, L. et al., 2006, American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Statement on Pulmonary Rehabilitation: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, v. 173, no. 12, p. 1390-1413.


37. Seemungal, T. A., J. R. Hurst, and J. A. Wedzicha, 2009, Exacerbation rate, health status and mortality in COPD--a review of potential interventions: Int.J Chron.Obstruct.Pulmon.Dis., v. 4, p. 203-223.


38. Ref Type: Online Source Young, R. P., R. Hopkins, and T. E. Eaton, 2007, Forced expiratory volume in one second: not just a lung function test but a marker of premature death from all causes: European Respiratory Journal, v. 30, no. 4, p. 616-622. Verzeichnis der akademischen Lehrer 85


39. Mannino, D. M., and A. S. Buist, 2007, Global burden of COPD: risk factors, prevalence, and future trends: Lancet, v. 370, no. 9589, p. 765-773.


40. Mannino, 2006, Global burden of COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis: European Respiratory Journal, v. 28, no. 3, p. 523-532.


41. Rabe, K. F. et al., 2007, Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: GOLD Executive Summary: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, v. 176, no. 6, p. 532-555.


42. Krieger, B. P., 2009, Hyperinflation and intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure: less room to breathe: Respiration, v. 77, no. 3, p. 344-350.


43. Sin, D. D., and S. F. Man, 2008, Impact of cancers and cardiovascular diseases in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Curr.Opin.Pulm.Med, v. 14, no. 2, p. 115-121.


44. MILIC-EMILI, J., J. MEAD, J. M. TURNER, and E. M. GLAUSER, 1964, Improved technique for estimating pleural pressure from esophageal ballons: J Appl.Physiol, v. 19, p. 207-211.


45. Sethi, S., and T. F. Murphy, 2008, Infection in the Pathogenesis and Course of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 359, no. 22, p. 2355-2365.


46. Joos, G. F., and P. J. Barnes, 2010, Inflammatory airway diseases and clinical allergy: European Respiratory Journal, v. 35, no. 6, p. 1197-1199.


47. Brochard, L., A. Harf, H. Lorino, and F. Lemaire, 1989, Inspiratory pressure support prevents diaphragmatic fatigue during weaning from mechanical ventilation: Am Rev Respir Dis., v. 139, no. 2, p. 513-521.


48. Buist, A. S. et al., 2007, International variation in the prevalence of COPD (The BOLD Study): a population-based prevalence study: The Lancet, v. 370, no. 9589, p. 741-750.


49. Rossi, A., and S. Khirani, 2009, Intrinsic PEEP and the airbag effect: Respiration, v. 77, no. 3, p. 256-258.


50. Rossi, A., G. Polese, G. Brandi, and G. Conti, 1995, Intrinsic positive end- expiratory pressure (PEEPi): Intensive Care Med., v. 21, no. 6, p. 522-536.


51. Rieger, M., E. Di Martino, and M. Westhofen, 2004, Konservative Behandlung bei leichtgradiger obstruktiver Schlafapnoe: Vergleich medikamentöser Therapie und nasaler Beatmung: Laryngo-Rhino-Otol, v. 83, no. 05, p. 324,329.


52. Vogelmeier, C. et al., 2007a, Leitlinie der Deutschen Atemwegsliga und der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin zur Diagnostik und Therapie von Patienten mit chronisch obstruktiver Bronchitis und Lungenemphysem (COPD): Pneumologie, v. 61, no. 05, p. e1-e40.


53. Sue, R. D., and I. Susanto, 2003, Long-term complications of artificial airways: Clin.Chest Med, v. 24, no. 3, p. 457-471.


54. Vrieze, A., M. de Greef, P. Wykstra, and J. Wempe, 2007, Low bone mineral density in COPD patients related to worse lung function, low weight and decreased fat-free mass: Osteoporosis International, v. 18, no. 9, p. 1197-1202.


55. Spencer, L. M., J. A. Alison, and Z. J. McKeough, 2010, Maintaining benefits following pulmonary rehabilitation: a randomised controlled trial: European Respiratory Journal, v. 35, no. 3, p. 571-577.


56. Ref Type: Edited Book Brochard, L., 2003, Mechanical ventilation: invasive versus noninvasive: European Respiratory Journal, v. 22, no. 47 suppl, p. 31s-37s.


57. Gladwin, M. T., and D. J. Pierson, 1998, Mechanical ventilation of the patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Intensive Care Med., v. 24, no. 9, p. 898-910.


58. Konrad, F., T. Schreiber, D. Brecht-Kraus, and M. Georgieff, 1994, Mucociliary transport in ICU patients: Chest, v. 105, no. 1, p. 237-241.


59. Petrof, B. J., R. J. Kimoff, R. D. Levy, M. G. Cosio, and S. B. Gottfried, 1991, Nasal continuous positive airway pressure facilitates respiratory muscle function during sleep in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Am Rev Respir Dis., v. 143, no. 5 Pt 1, p. 928-935.


60. Gottfried, and L. Lindstrom, 1999, Neural control of mechanical ventilation in respiratory failure: Nat Med, v. 5, no. 12, p. 1433-1436. Literaturverzeichnis 83


61. Sethi, S., P. Mallia, and S. L. Johnston, 2009, New Paradigms in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease II: Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, v. 6, no. 6, p. 532-534.


62. Vargas F., Thille A., Lyazidi A, and Brochard L., 2012, NIV for acute respiratory failure: modes of ventilation and ventilators : Noninvasive Ventilation, European Respiratory Society Monograph 2008; v. 41, p. 154-172.


63. Schoenhofer, B., R. Kuhlen, P. Neumann, M. Westhoff, C. Berndt, and H. Sitter, 2008a, Non-invasive ventilation as treatment for acute respiratory insufficiency. Essentials from the new S3 guidelines: Anaesthesist, v. 57, no. 11, p. 1091- 1102.


64. Brochard, L. et al., 1995, Noninvasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: N Engl J Med, v. 333, no. 13, p. 817- 822.


65. Plant, P. K., J. L. Owen, and M. W. Elliott, 2001, Non-invasive ventilation in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: long term survival and predictors of in-hospital outcome: Thorax, v. 56, no. 9, p. 708-712.


66. Khilnani, G. C., and A. Banga, 2008, Noninvasive ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive airway disease: Int.J Chron.Obstruct.Pulmon.Dis., v. 3, no. 3, p. 351-357.


67. LUNDBAECK, B. et al., 2003, Not 15 But 50% of smokers develop COPD?-- Report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden Studies: Respiratory Medicine, v. 97, no. 2, p. 115-122.


68. Ref Type: Generic Redline, S. et al., 2010, Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea and Incident Stroke: The Sleep Heart Health Study: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, v. 182, no. 2, p. 269-277.


69. Cazzola, M. et al., 2008, Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers: European Respiratory Journal, v. 31, no. 2, p. 416-469.


70. Marin, J. M., J. B. Soriano, S. J. Carrizo, A. Boldova, and B. R. Celli, 2010, Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Overlap Syndrome: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, v. 182, no. 3, p. 325-331.


71. Weitzenblum, E., A. Chaouat, R. Kessler, and M. Canuet, 2008, Overlap Syndrome: Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, v. 5, no. 2, p. 237-241.


72. Matar, and J. MILIC-EMILI, 1993, Partitioning of work of breathing in mechanically ventilated COPD patients: J Appl.Physiol, v. 75, no. 4, p. 1711- 1719.


73. MacNee, W., 2005, Pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, v. 2, no. 4, p. 258-266.


74. Koehler, D., M. Pfeifer, and C. Criee, 2006, Pathophysiological basis of mechanical ventilation: Pneumologie, v. 60, no. 2, p. 100-110.


75. Windisch, W., and C. P. Criée, 2010, Pathophysiologie und Grundlagen des respiratorischen Versagens: Der Pneumologe, v. 7, no. 2, p. 74-80.


76. Kakkar, R. K., and R. B. Berry, 2007, Positive airway pressure treatment for obstructive sleep apnea: Chest, v. 132, no. 3, p. 1057-1072.


77. N. Agusti, and B. R. Celli, 2009, Prediction of risk of COPD exacerbations by the BODE index: Respiratory Medicine, v. 103, no. 3, p. 373-378.


78. Davidson, 2004, Reducing motor-vehicle collisions, costs, and fatalities by treating obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: Sleep, v. 27, no. 3, p. 453-458.


79. Ref Type: Generic Literaturverzeichnis 78


80. Kabitz, H. J., and W. Windisch, 2007, Respiratory muscle testing: state of the art: Pneumologie, v. 61, no. 9, p. 582-587.


81. Brochard, L. et al., 1990, Reversal of Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease by Inspiratory Assistance with a Face Mask: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 323, no. 22, p. 1523-1530.


82. Sullivan, C. E., F. G. Issa, M. Berthon-Jones, and L. Eves, 1981, Reversal of obstructive sleep apnoea by continuous positive airway pressure applied through the nares: Lancet, v. 1, no. 8225, p. 862-865.


83. Hu, G., Y. Zhou, J. Tian, W. Yao, J. Li, B. Li, and P. Ran, 2010, Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from exposure to biomass smoke: A meta- analysis: Chest.


84. Demedts, I. K., T. Demoor, K. R. Bracke, G. F. Joos, and G. G. Brusselle, 2006, Role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of COPD and pulmonary emphysema: Respir Res., v. 7, p. 53.


85. Schoenhofer,B, H Sitter, R Kuhlen. S3 -Leitlinie Nichtinvasive Beatmung als Therapie der akuten respiratorischen Insuffizienz. 2008b. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin e.V.; Arbeitsgemeinschaft Wissenschaftlich-Medizinischer Fachgesellschaften (AWMF).


86. Soler-Cataluna, J. J., M. A. Martinez-Garcia, P. Roman Sanchez, E. Salcedo, M. Navarro, and R. Ochando, 2005, Severe acute exacerbations and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Thorax, v. 60: p. 925- 931.


87. Owens, R. L., and A. Malhotra, 2010, Sleep-Disordered Breathing and COPD: The Overlap Syndrome: Respir Care, v. 55, no. 10, p. 1333-1346.


88. Hirshkowitz, 2009, Sleep disorders and their management in patients with COPD: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease, v. 3, no. 6, p. 309-318.


89. Olejniczak, P. W., and B. J. Fisch, 2003, Sleep disorders: The Medical clinics of North America, v. 87, no. 4, p. 803-833.


90. Flenley, D. C., 1985, Sleep in chronic obstructive lung disease: Clin.Chest Med, v. 6, no. 4, p. 651-661.


91. Roehrs, T., 2000, Sleep physiology and pathophysiology: Clinical Cornerstone, v. 2, no. 5, p. 1-12.


92. Valipour, A., P. Lavie, H. Lothaller, I. Mikulic, and O. C. Burghuber, 2011, Sleep profile and symptoms of sleep disorders in patients with stable mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Sleep Med., v. 12, no. 4, p. 367-372.


93. Ref Type: Report DGSM, 2009, Somnologie S3-Leitlinie Nicht erholsamer Schlaf: Somnologie - Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin, v. 13, no. 0, p. 1-160.


94. Celli, B. R. et al., 2004a, Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper: European Respiratory Journal, v. 23, no. 6, p. 932-946.


95. Purro, A., L. Appendini, A. Patessio, S. Zanaboni, M. Gudjonsdottir, A. Rossi, and C. F. Donner, 1998, Static intrinsic PEEP in COPD patients during spontaneous breathing: Am.J.Respir.Crit Care Med., v. 157, no. 4 Pt 1, p. 1044- 1050.


96. Iber C, Ancoli-Israel S, Chesson AL, Quan SF. The AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events: Rules, Terminology, and Technical Specifications. Westchester, Ill: American Academy of Sleep Medicine . 2007. Ref Type: In Press


97. Mendez, V. Pinto Plata, and H. J. Cabral, 2004b, The Body-Mass Index, Airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise Capacity Index in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 350, no. 10, p. 1005-1012.


98. Punjabi, N. M., 2008, The Epidemiology of Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, v. 5, no. 2, p. 136-143.


99. Kohansal, R., P. Martinez-Camblor, A. Agusti, A. S. Buist, D. M. Mannino, and J. B. Soriano, 2009, The natural history of chronic airflow obstruction revisited: an analysis of the Framingham offspring cohort: Am.J.Respir.Crit Care Med., v. 180, no. 1, p. 3-10.


100. Similowski, T., A. Agusti, W. MacNee, and B. Schonhofer, 2006, The potential impact of anaemia of chronic disease in COPD: European Respiratory Journal, v. 27, no. 2, p. 390-396.


101. M. Beeh, K. F. Rabe, and L. M. Fabbri, 2011, Tiotropium versus salmeterol for the prevention of exacerbations of COPD: N.Engl.J.Med., v. 364, no. 12, p. 1093-1103.


102. Oba, Y., and G. A. Salzman, 2000, Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury: N Engl J Med, v. 343, no. 11, p. 813-814.


103. Vogelmeier, 2003, Warum ist die obstruktive Schlafapnoe (OSA) ein kardiovaskulaerer Risikofaktor?: Zeitschrift für Kardiologie, v. 92, no. 12, p. 977- 984.


104. Ferguson, G. T., 2006, Why does the lung hyperinflate?: Proc.Am.Thorac.Soc., v. 3, no. 2, p. 176-179.


105. Oliveira, F. S. Leit+úo, F. Queiroga, G. Lorenzi-Filho, and J. A. Krishnan, 2010, CPAP and survival in moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and hypoxaemic COPD: European Respiratory Journal, v. 35, no. 1, p. 132-137.


106. Chapman, K. R. et al., 2006, Epidemiology and costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: European Respiratory Journal, v. 27, no. 1, p. 188-207.


107. Kessler, 1995, Association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sleep apnea syndrome: Am J Respir Crit Care Med, v. 151, no. 1, p. 82-86.


108. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Executive Summary: Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, updated 2009 http://www.goldcopd.com; letzter Aufruf 01.11.2011. 2009.


109. Lam, J. C., S. K. Sharma, and B. Lam, 2010, Obstructive sleep apnoea: definitions, epidemiology & natural history: Indian J Med Res., v. 131, p. 165- 170.


110. Lightowler, J. V., J. A. Wedzicha, M. W. Elliott, and F. S. Ram, 2003, Non- invasive positive pressure ventilation to treat respiratory failure resulting from exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis: BMJ, v. 326, no. 7382, p. 185.


111. Fletcher C, Peto R, Tinker R, Speitzer FE. The Natural History of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema. Oxford: Oxford UniversityPress . 1976.


112. Salvi, S. S., and P. J. Barnes, 2009, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in non-smokers: The Lancet, v. 374, no. 9691, p. 733-743.