Table of Contents:
The author of this study compares the political systems of three African countries: Nigeria, South-Africa and Sudan in order to find political alternatives for a peaceful future of the multi-ethnical state of Sudan. All of them are multi-ethnical countries with a federal organization. Sudan is currently governed by a dictatorial regime which privileges only certain ethnic groups. The conflicts in Southern Sudan, in Darfur and in other regions of the country show this clearly. It is argued that people have to fulfill the following requirements in order to participate in the political and economical system: They have to be Arabic Muslims originating from Northern Sudan. The examples of Nigeria and South-Africa demonstrate that a peaceful change is possible. This can be realized by introducing a real federalism which allows the states more autonomy and increases the power of local communities. In order to establish a good governmental system, power-sharing and a fair distribution of finances between the federal states and the local community is necessary. The interests of the different ethnic groups have to be taken into consideration. The most important issue is that the government has to be prepared to negotiate with all political and social groups of Sudan about the future of the country. The author’s opinion is, that the Sudanese government is not really interested in a fair peace and therefore does not negotiate seriously. But he is convinced that the pressure of the marginalized regions will increase and the dictatorial regime will not govern forever.