Establishment of surface functionalization methods for spore-based biosensors and implementation into sensor technologies for aseptic food processing

Aseptic processing has become a popular technology to increase the shelf-life of packaged products and to provide non-contaminated goods to the consumers. In 2017, the global aseptic market was evaluated to be about 39.5 billion USD. Many liquid food products, like juice or milk, are delivered to cu...

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Bibliographic Details
Main Author: Arreola Becerra, Julio César
Contributors: Schöning, Michael J. (Prof. Dr.) (Thesis advisor)
Format: Dissertation
Language:English
Published: Philipps-Universität Marburg 2020
Subjects:
EIS
Online Access:PDF Full Text
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Summary:Aseptic processing has become a popular technology to increase the shelf-life of packaged products and to provide non-contaminated goods to the consumers. In 2017, the global aseptic market was evaluated to be about 39.5 billion USD. Many liquid food products, like juice or milk, are delivered to customers every day by employing aseptic filling machines. They can operate around 12,000 ready-packaged products per hour (e.g., Pure-Pak® Aseptic Filling Line E-PS120A). However, they need to be routinely validated to guarantee contamination-free goods. The state-of-the-art methods to validate such machines are by means of microbiological analyses, where bacterial spores are used as test organisms because of their high resistance against several sterilants (e.g., gaseous hydrogen peroxide). The main disadvantage of the aforementioned tests is time: it takes at least 36-48 hours to get the results, i.e., the products cannot be delivered to customers without the validation certificate. Just in this example, in 36 hours, 432,000 products would be on hold for dispatchment; if more machines are evaluated, this number would linearly grow and at the end, the costs (only for waiting for the results) would be considerably high. For this reason, it is very valuable to develop new sensor technologies to overcome this issue. Therefore, the main focus of this thesis is on the further development of a spore-based biosensor; this sensor can determine the viability of spores after being sterilized with hydrogen peroxide. However, the immobilization strategy as well as its implementation on sensing elements and a more detailed investigation regarding its operating principle are missing. In this thesis, an immobilization strategy is developed to withstand harsh conditions (high temperatures, oxidizing environment) for spore-based biosensors applied in aseptic processing. A systematic investigation of the surface functionalization’s effect (e.g., hydroxylation) on sensors (e.g., electrolyte-insulator semiconductor (EIS) chips) is presented. Later on, organosilanes are analyzed for the immobilization of bacterial spores on different sensor surfaces. The electrical properties of the immobilization layer are studied as well as its resistance to a sterilization process with gaseous hydrogen peroxide. In addition, a sensor array consisting of a calorimetric gas sensor and a spore-based biosensor to measure hydrogen peroxide concentrations and the spores’ viability at the same time is proposed to evaluate the efficacy of sterilization processes.
Physical Description:186 Pages
DOI:https://doi.org/10.17192/z2020.0118