Dolasetron, Droperidol und die Kombination beider Substanzen zur Prophylaxe von Übelkeit und Erbrechen nach extrakapsulären Kataraktextraktionen in Allgemeinanästhesie

Ziel der Studie: Droperidol und die 5-HT3-Antagonisten gehören zu den effektivsten Substanzen zur Prophylaxe und Therapie von Übelkeit und Erbrechen in der postoperativen Phase (PONV). Ziel dieser placebokontrollierten, prospektiven, randomisierten und doppelblinden Untersuchung war es, Droperidol u...

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Bibliographic Details
Main Author: Lindenthal Mark
Contributors: Eberhart Leopold (Dr. med.) (Thesis advisor)
Format: Doctoral Thesis
Published: Philipps-Universität Marburg 2005
Online Access:PDF Full Text
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Background: Both, droperidol and the new 5-HT3-antagonists (e.g. dolasetron) are effective drugs in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). It was the aim of this prospecitve double blind placebo controlled study to determine the efficacy of low-dose droperidol, dolasetron, and a combination of both drugs in the prevention of PONV after extracapsular cataract extraction. Methods: 148 inpatients undergoing cataract surgery were stratified according to gender and then randomised to receive one of four antiemetic regimes: placebo, droperidol (10 µg/kg), dolasetron (12,5 mg), or the combination of both drugs (10 µg/kg + 12,5 mg). The drugs were administered intravenously 5-10 minutes before the end of anaesthesia. General anaesthesia and the perioperative management of the patients were standardised: benzodiazepine premedication, induction with etomidate, alfentanil and mivacurium. Maintenance using desflurane in N2O/O2, and a continous infusion of mivacurium was used. Postoperative analgesia (diclofenac or paracetamol) and antiemetic rescue medication (dimenhydrinate and metoclopramide) was standardised. Nausea, episodes of vomiting, retching and the need for additional antiemetics were recorded for 24-hours. The severity of PONV was categorised using a standardised scoring algorithm. The main aim of the study was the number of patients who stayed completely free from PONV. Results: There were no differences between the two groups with regard to biometric data, type of surgery, and distribution of risk factors for developing PONV. In all three treatment groups significantly more patients stayed completely free from PONV (placebo: 66%; droperidol: 89%; dolasetron: 92%; combination: 89%; p=0,01). Furthermore, the severity of PONV was reduced. Conclusion: Low-dose droperidol and dolasetron are equally effective to reduce the incidence and severity of PONV after cataract surgery under general anaesthesia. The combination of both drugs revealed no additional effect.