Risk factors and protective factors of acute postoperative pain: an observational study at a German university hospital with cross-sectional and longitudinal inpatient data

Objectives: Surgical fear is one of the most important psychological risk factors for postoperative pain, but less is known about the contribution of protective factors. This study investigated somatic and psychological risk and resilience factors of postoperative pain and validated the German v...

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Main Authors: Riecke, Jenny, Zerth, Simon Felix, Schubert, Ann-Kristin, Wiesmann, Thomas, Dinges, Hanns-Christian, Wulf, Hinnerk, Volberg, Christian
Format: Article
Language:English
Published: Philipps-Universität Marburg 2023
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Summary:Objectives: Surgical fear is one of the most important psychological risk factors for postoperative pain, but less is known about the contribution of protective factors. This study investigated somatic and psychological risk and resilience factors of postoperative pain and validated the German version of the Surgical Fear Questionnaire (SFQ). Setting: University Hospital of Marburg, Germany. Design: Single-centre observational study and cross-sectional validation study. Participants: Data for validating the SFQ were obtained from a cross-sectional observational study (N=198, mean age 43.6 years, 58.8% female) with persons undergoing different kinds of elective surgery. A sample of N=196 (mean age 43.0 years, 45.4% female) undergoing elective (orthopaedic) surgery was analysed to investigate somatic and psychological predictors of relevant acute postsurgical pain (APSP). Outcome measures: Participants completed preoperative and postoperative assessments at postoperative days 1, 2 and 7. Presurgical pain, age, gender, pain expectation, surgical setting, physical status, anaesthesia, surgical fear, pain catastrophising, depression, optimism and self-efficacy were examined as predictors. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the original two-factor structure of the SFQ. Correlation analyses indicated good convergent and divergent validity. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) was between 0.85 and 0.89. Blockwise logistic regression analyses for the risk of APSP revealed outpatient setting, higher preoperative pain, younger age, more surgical fear and low dispositional optimism as significant predictors. Conclusions: The German SFQ is a valid, reliable and economical instrument with which the important psychological predictor surgical fear can be assessed. Modifiable factors that increase the risk of postoperative pain were higher pain intensity before surgery and being fearful about negative consequences of the surgery whereas positive expectations seem to buffer against postsurgical pain. Trial registration numbers: DRKS00021764 and DRKS00021766.
Item Description:Gefördert durch den Open-Access-Publikationsfonds der UB Marburg.
DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2022-069977