In this thesis a conceptual framework of leaders’ emotional labor is explored; therein it is specifically focused on the role of authentic leadership and procedural justice as linking variables between leaders’ emotional labor and follower outcomes. The framework is tested with three empirical studies. Generally, the model is supported. In line with Study 1 leaders’ emotional labor was related to followers’ perceptions of their authenticity. However, therein followers’ gender has to be taken in account. In line with Study 2, authentic leadership was related to followers’ emotional exhaustion through procedural justice, whereby this further depended on the emotional demands the employee was confronted with. In line with Study 3, and in terms of the framework, there is evidence that procedural justice links leaders’ emotional labor to followers’ emotional labor, as procedural injustice impacts the use of surface acting and service performance; although differently than expected. Therefore, the model offers a good starting point for future research and highlights open research questions which should be addressed.
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