|Titel:||In vino sanitas. Apotheker des 19. Jahrhunderts als Wegbereiter der modernen Önologie|
|Autor:||Lidy, Tanja (geb. Möhring)|
|Weitere Beteiligte:||Helmstädter, Axel (Prof. Dr.)|
|Titel(trans.):||In vino sanitas. Pharmacists of the 19th century as forerunners of modern oenology|
|Benedikt Kölges Johann Philipp Bronner Julius Nessler wine, Benedikt Kölges (1774–1850) Johann Philipp Bronner (1792–1864) Julius Nessler (1827–1905) Wein Pharmazie Önologie Aussteiger, Benedikt Kölges (1774–1850) Johann Philipp Bronner (1792–1864) Julius Nessler (1827–1905) Wein Pharmazie Önologie|
In der vorliegend Studie wurden drei Weinbauapotheker des 19. Jahrhunderts untersucht(Benedikt Kölges (1774–1850), Johann Philipp Bronner (1792–1864) und Julius Nessler (1827–1905)). Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass sie ihr interdiziplinäres Wissen aus dem Pharmaziestudium für die Önologie nutzten. Sie galten alle drei als Aussteiger der Pharmazie.
Life and work of outstanding pharmacists were often described in the history of pharmacy, usually as discoverers of new drugs or with special achievements in pharmaceutical disciplines. The rare kind of pharmacists who changed their career and worked as oenologists in the 19th century is insufficiently researched up to now. The “wine pharmacists” of the 19th century can be regarded as important forerunners of modern oenology. This special career path was more popular in France than in Germany. The German wine pharmacists are more or less forgotten, their achievements shall be appreciated here. The 19th century is generally marked by an increasing influence of natural science. Also, viticulture changed from a purely empirical knowledge transfer between the generations of winemakers to a scientifically based discipline. At that time wine was food and medication rather than a luxury good, but wine lost its pharmaceutical importance more and more. Nevertheless it was interesting to investigate the role of pharmacists in promoting wine as a phytopharmacon and, vice versa, if there had been any knowledge transfer back to their old profession. The connection between the pharmacy and oenology at that time was much closer than today. Pharmacy school curricula included wine analysis and basic knowledge about the ingredients and types of wine. Generally, pharmacists were important experts for food related questions. No other occupational group at that time had more analytical, chemical and food chemistry knowledge. This level of education provided almost perfect career change options. Benedict Kölges (1774–1850) is the oldest pharmacist investigated of this study and almost forgotten today. His contributions to scientific progress are not the primary focus. His merits and his life's work lay in social and educational ranges. Rather visionary for his time, he developed and promoted the education of young winemakers. He called for special wine-growing schools in particular for teaching basic scientific knowledge. In this context he wrote textbooks and encyclopedias on wine and wine growing. The term “Önanthäther” from his lexicon is noteworthy. It was defined as a single component responsible for fragrance, bouquet and increased alcoholic effects of the wine. Today the term is not often used anymore due to the fact that “Önanthäther” is a multi component mixture. Already during his period as pharmacist Kölges saw, reinforced by wars and epidemics, the growing social problems in his wine-growing region. His most important contribution to social welfare was expressed in a draft of a health insurance for the benefit of the poor and less wealthy estates. This health insurance design, originating from 1817, shows remarkable parallels to today's health insurance systems. In addition to income-related contribution he proposed funding by export duties on wine. Philipp Bronner (1792–1864), a friend of Kölges, became after his career change an outstanding ampelographer (vine varieties specialist). He built up a vine nursery cultivating different grape varieties corresponding to different vineyard situations. Bronner cultivated just about 400 varieties, mostly brought back from his travels. We owe him grapes cultivated up to the present time, such as the Blue Saint Laurent. Based on his voyages he did wine cartography for various wine regions, at home and abroad. Here he also integrated regional mineralogical and climatic conditions. His systematic work resulted from using a large standard questionnaire. Bronner mediated the obtained knowledge from travels directly to the home winemakers. His literary skills associated with his charismatic nature led to very successful public relations. Today he is the currently best known wine pharmacist. The wine analysis by pharmacist got a negative review by the trade journals at the end of the 19th century. For example the collision between everyday pharmacy workload and wine analysis services was pointed out. Pharmacist Nessler circumvented this issue by change of occupation and became an outstanding wine analyst of his time. He built up an agricultural research institute as a visible milestone of change. He published about 300 publications on wine analysis and wine production. This thesis discusses the achievements of Nessler and the knowledge about wine chemistry based on the so-called “small wine analysis”. Compared to his dissertation about “Nesslers Reagenz” a similar success was not granted to him in wine analysis. However, he developed several new methods of analysis, for example for the detection of adulterations in the dyeing of the wine. An important field of Nesslers research activity was the so-called health of the wine, such as the killing of microorganisms, called as “little plants” by Nessler. He developed a method to eliminate acid bacteria in the wine using a floating wood part impregnated with two percent salicylic acid - the „Nessler sche Weinholz”. The "Nessler sche Gärrörchen", served to separate the wine from its surroundings during the fermentation process. Nessler contributed to the technical development of the device and made it popular among the winemakers. The pharmacy in Kippenheim, where Nessler was educated, is located within a local center of vine production and still doing wine analysis in the 21st century. All three discussed German pharmacist must be regarded as dropouts from the pharmacy after their career changes with a few exceptions at Julius Nessler. The interdisciplinary study of pharmacy paved their way to oenology. However, there were only few significant reflections back to their old profession considering the pharmaceutical use of wine. They have to be ragerded as pioneers of modern oenology instead.
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