Publikationsserver der Universitätsbibliothek Marburg

Titel: The Donor-Intermediary Interaction and the Decision-Making Process of Intermediaries for Development Assistance for Health
Autor: Stepping, Katharina Magdalena Karoline
Weitere Beteiligte: Voigt, Stefan (Prof. Dr.)
Veröffentlicht: 2012
URI: https://archiv.ub.uni-marburg.de/diss/z2012/0556
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17192/z2012.0556
URN: urn:nbn:de:hebis:04-z2012-05564
DDC: Wirtschaft
Titel(trans.): Die Geber-Intermediär-Interaktion und der Entscheidungsprozess von Intermediären für Entwicklungshilfe im Gesundheitswesen
Publikationsdatum: 2012-10-05
Lizenz: https://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC-NC/1.0/

Dokument

Schlagwörter:
MDGs, Anreize, Incentives, Entwicklungshilfe, Entwicklungspolitik, MDGs, Reputation, Millenniums-Entwicklungsziele, Health, Interaktion, Foreign aid, Gesundheit, Aid policy, Institution, Prestige

Summary:
In the first part, three sequential games model the interaction between donor and intermediary, as important players in development cooperation, under different circumstances. The game structure highlights the interdependencies between asymmetric information, trust, institutions and reputation. In each situation, the reputation mechanism has a different effect. The analysis reveals that the importance of reputation as feedback mechanism for the donor about the behavior of the intermediary is subject to the institutional setting and the relative power of each player. The game modeling allows understanding of the importance of reputation, how this mechanism is related to institutions, and under which conditions it is likely to work. The games also emphasize the importance of third parties as external sources of information in order to make reputation an effective mechanism. In the second part, the decision-making process of bilateral donors as regards development assistance for health is analyzed. The Millennium Development Goals declared the reduction of child mortality, the improvement of maternal health and the fight of HIV/Aids, malaria and other diseases as major objectives on the international agenda. Against this background, the principal question is in how far the knowledge about poor health circumstances in a potential recipient country influences the decision-making. The results show that health indicators affect the selection and allocation decision, but to a different degree. The internationally established health objectives guide the aid policies of donors heterogeneously. Overall, many motives, including political and economic factors, drive the selection and allocation policies of the average donor as well as for the majority of bilateral donors. In summary, the decision-making process for health assistance of the average donor and of individual donors is multidimensional, rather than narrowly focused on recipient need as expressed by poor health indicators.

Zusammenfassung:
Zunächst werden die Interaktionen zwischen Gebern und Intermediären der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit im Rahmen eines spieltheoretischen Modells analysiert. Die Modellierung ihrer Interaktion als Spiel ermöglicht einen genaueren Blick auf die bisweilen dysfunktionale Feedbackverbindung zwischen Empfänger und Geber. Die Spiele erlauben, die Rolle von Reputation zu beleuchten, wie der Mechanismus mit Institutionen zusammenhängt und unter welchen Bedingungen er wahrscheinlich funktioniert. Die Spiele unterstreichen auch die Notwendigkeit von Dritten als externe Informationsquelle, damit Reputation ein effektiver Feedbackmechanismus sein kann. Vor dem Hintergrund der Millenniums-Entwicklungsziele, die die Senkung von Kindersterblichkeit, die Verbesserung der Müttergesundheit und den Kampf gegen HIV/Aids, Malaria und andere Krankheiten als wichtige Ziele der internationalen Agenda beinhalten, wird der Entscheidungsprozess bilateraler Geber für Gesundheitsentwicklungshilfe empirisch analysiert. Zum Einen wird untersucht, welche Faktoren die Selektionsentscheidung der durchschnittlichen bilateralen Geber, aber auch des individuellen bilateralen Gebers, entscheidend beeinflussen. Zum Anderen wird hinterfragt, welche Faktoren die Auswahlentscheidung des durchschnittlichen bilateralen Gebers, aber auch ausgewählter individueller bilateraler Geber, beeinflussen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Gesundheitsindikatoren die Selektions- und die Allokationsentscheidung zwar beeinflussen, die Entwicklungshilfepolitik der Geber aber heterogen ist, trotz gemeinsam festgelegter Gesundheitsziele. Viele Motive, einschließlich politischer und ökonomischer Faktoren, beeinflussen die Auswahl- und Allokationspolitik des Durchschnittsgebers, aber auch die Mehrzahl der bilateralen Geber. Zusammenfassend kann man sagen, dass der Entscheidungsprozess für Gesundheitsentwicklungshilfe des Durchschnittsgebers und der einzelnen bilateralen Geber mehrdimensional ist und keinem strikten Fokus auf die Bedürftigkeit des Empfängers, ausgedrückt in schlechten Gesundheitsindikatoren, folgt.

Bibliographie / References

  1. Clemens, Michael A.; Radelet, Steven; Bhavnani, Rikhil (2004): Counting Chickens When They Hatch: The Short-Term Effect of Aid on Growth. Working Paper 44, 1-71.
  2. Schelling, Thomas C. (1960): The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  3. Dreher, Axel; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Öhler, Hannes (2010): Why it Pays for Aid Recipients to Take Note of the Millennium Challenge Corporation: Other Donors Do!. Kiel Working Papers (1609), 1-22.
  4. Voigt, Stefan (2009a): How (Not) to Measure Institutions. MAGKS Joint Discussion Paper Series in Economics No. 37, 1-26.
  5. Barbieri, Katherine; Keshk, Omar; Pollins, Brian (2008): Correlates of War Project Trade Data Set Codebook, Version 2.01. http://correlatesofwar.org (accessed August 18, 2010).
  6. World Bank (2010): World Development Indicators. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator (accessed October 22, 2010).
  7. Sachs, Jeffrey D. (2005): The End of Poverty. Economic Possibilities for Our Time. New York: Penguin Press.
  8. Easterly, William (2007): The White Man's Burden. Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good. London: Penguin Books.
  9. Berthélemy, Jean-Claude (2006): Bilateral Donors' Interest vs. Recipients' Development Motives in Aid Allocation: Do All Donors Behave the Same?. Review of Development Economics 10(2), 179-194.
  10. Eurostat (2011): Public Health. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/health/public_health/data_public_health/dat abase (accessed March 31, 2011).
  11. Neumayer, Eric (2005): Is the Allocation of Food Aid Free from Donor Interest Bias?. Journal of Development Studies 41(3), 394-411.
  12. Neumayer, Eric (2003b): The Pattern of Aid Giving. The Impact of Good Governance on Development Assistance. New York: Routledge.
  13. Rajaratnam, J.; Marcus, J.; Flaxman, A.; Wang, H.; Levin-Rector, A.; Dwyer, L.; Costa, M.; Lopez, A.; Murray, C. (2010): Neonatal, postneonatal, childhood, and under-5 mortality for 187 countries, 1970-2010: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4. The Lancet 375(9730), 1988-2008.
  14. Baltagi, Badi H. (2008): Econometric Analysis of Panel Data. 4th ed. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.
  15. Mavrotas, George; Nunnenkamp, Peter (2007): Foreign Aid Heterogeneity: Issues and Agenda. Review of World Economics 143(4), 585-595.
  16. Kilby, Christopher (2006): Donor Influence in Multilateral Development Banks: The Case of the Asian Development Bank. The Review of International Organizations 1(2), 173-195.
  17. McGillivray, Mark (2003a): Aid Effectiveness and Selectivity: Integrating Multiple Objectives into Aid Allocations. DAC Journal 4(3), 27-40.
  18. Round, Jeffery I.; Odedokun, Matthew (2004): Aid Effort and its Determinants. International Review of Economics & Finance 13(3), 293-309.
  19. Kaufmann, Daniel; Kraay, Aart; Mastruzzi, Massimo (2010): The Worldwide Governance Indicators. Methodology and Analytical Issues. Policy Research Working Paper 5430, 1-29.
  20. Claessens, Stijn; Cassimon, Danny; Van Campenhout, Bjorn (2009): Evidence on Changes in Aid Allocation Criteria. The World Bank Economic Review 23(2), 185-208.
  21. McGillivray, Mark; White, Howard (1993): Explanatory Studies of Aid Allocation among Developing Countries: A Critical Survey. Working Paper Series (148), 1-82.
  22. Plümper, Thomas; Troeger, Vera E. (2007): Efficient Estimation of Time-Invariant and Rarely Changing Variables in Finite Sample Panel Analyses with Unit Fixed Effects. Political Analysis 15(2), 124-139.
  23. Beck, Thorsten; Clarke, George; Groff, Alberto; Keefer, Philip; Walsh, Patrick (2001): New tools in comparative political economy: The Database of Political Institutions. World Bank Economic Review 15(1), 165-176.
  24. Hirschman, Albert O. (1970): Exit, Voice and Loyalty. Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  25. UNDP (2010b): Human Development Report. http://hdr.undp.org/en/ (accessed September 14, 2010).
  26. UNDP (2010a): Frequently Asked Questions -FAQs. http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/faq/ (accessed September 1, 2010).
  27. Dudley, Leonard; Montmarquette, Claude (1976): A Model of the Supply of Bilateral Foreign Aid. The American Economic Review 66(1), 132-142.
  28. Cragg, John G. (1971): Some Statistical Models for Limited Dependent Variables with Application to the Demand for Durable Goods. Econometrica 39(5), 829-844.
  29. Trumbull, William N.; Wall, Howard J. (1994): Estimating Aid-Allocation Criteria with Panel Data. Economic Journal 104(425), 876-882.
  30. Amemiya, Takeshi (1985): Advanced Econometrics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  31. Isopi, Alessia; Mavrotas, George (2009): Aid Allocation and Aid Effectiveness: An Empirical Analysis. In: Mavrotas; McGillivray: Development Aid. A Fresh Look. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 114-158.
  32. Baulch, Bob (2006): Aid distribution and the MDGs. World Development 34(6), 933-950.
  33. Svensson, Jakob (1999): Aid, Growth and Democracy. Economics and Politics 11(3), 275-298.
  34. Arndt, Channing; Jones, Sam; Tarp, Finn (2010): Aid, Growth, and Development: Have We Come Full Circle?. Journal of Globalization and Development 1(2), Article 5.
  35. Ostrom, Elinor; Gibson, Clark; Shivakumar, Sujai; Andersson, Krister (2001): Aid, Incentives, and Sustainability. An Institutional Analysis of Development Cooperation. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA).
  36. Tezanos Vázquez, Sergio (2008): Aiding Middle-income Countries? The Case of Spain. Oxford Development Studies 36(4), 409 -438.
  37. Burnside, Craig; Dollar, David (2000): Aid, Policies, and Growth. The American Economic Review 90(4), 847-868.
  38. Radelet, Steven (2006): A Primer on Foreign Aid. Working Paper Number 92, 1-24.
  39. Hogan, M.; Foreman, K.; Naghavi, M.; Ahn, S.; Wang, M.; Makela, S.; Lopez, A.; Lozano, R.; Murray, C. (2010): Maternal Mortality for 181 Countries, 1980-2008: A Systematic Analysis of Progress Towards Millennium Development Goal 5. The Lancet 375(9726), 1609-1623.
  40. Easterly, William (2009a): Can the West Save Africa?. Journal of Economic Literature 47(2), 373- 447.
  41. Radelet, Steven; Levine, Ruth (2008): Can We Build a Better Mousetrap? Three New Institutions Designed to Improve Aid Effectiveness. In: Easterly: Reinventing Foreign Aid. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 431-460.
  42. West, Darrell M. (2008): Angelina, Mia, and Bono: Celebrities and International Development. In: Brainard; Chollet: Global Development 2.0. Can Philanthropists, the Public, and the Poor Make Poverty History?. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 74-84.
  43. Schraeder, Peter J.; Hook, Steven W.; Taylor, Bruce (1998): Clarifying the Foreign Aid Puzzle: A Comparison of American, Japanese, French, and Swedish Aid Flows. World Politics 50(2), 294-323.
  44. Hulme, David; Shepherd, Andrew (2003): Conceptualizing Chronic Poverty. World Development 31(3), 403-423.
  45. Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Borghi, Josephine; Mueller, Dirk H.; Patouillard, Edith; Mills, Anne (2006): Countdown to 2015: Tracking Donor Assistance to Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health. Lancet 368(9541), 1077-1087.
  46. Faust, Jörg; Ziaja, Sebastian (2011): Country Selection and Resource Allocation of German Aid: Development-Orientation, Self-Interests and Path Dependency. SSRN eLibrary, 1-31.
  47. Tarp, Finn; Bach, Christian F.; Hansen, Henrik; Baunsgaard, Søren (1998): Danish Aid Policy: Theory and Empirical Evidence. No 98-06, Discussion Papers from University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics, 1-43.
  48. Fink, Günther; Redaelli, Silvia (2011): Determinants of International Emergency Aid -Humanitarian Need Only?. World Development 39(5), 741-757.
  49. Thiele, Rainer; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Dreher, Axel (2007): Do Donors Target Aid in Line with the Millennium Development Goals? A Sector Perspective of Aid Allocation. Review of World Economics 143(4), 596-630.
  50. Cassen, Robert (1994): Does Aid Work?. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  51. Wydick, Bruce; Glewwe, Paul; Rutledge, Laine (2011): Does Child Sponsorship Work? A Six- Country Study of Impacts on Adult Life Outcomes. 1-36.
  52. Dreher, Axel (2006): Does Globalization Affect Growth? Evidence from a New Index of Globalization. Applied Economics 38(10), 1091-1110.
  53. Neumayer, Eric (2003a): Do Human Rights Matter in Bilateral Aid Allocation? A Quantitative Analysis of 21 Donor Countries. Social Science Quarterly 84(3), 650-666.
  54. Glaeser, Edward L.; La Porta, Rafael ; Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio; Shleifer, Andrei (2004): Do Institutions Cause Growth?. Journal of Economic Growth 9(3), 271-303.
  55. Faust, Jörg (2010): Do Less Transparent Donor Countries Allocate Aid Differently?. APSA 2010 Annual Meeting Paper, 1-28.
  56. Greene, William H. (2011): Econometric Analysis. 7th ed. Essex: Pearson.
  57. Wooldridge, Jeffrey M. (2002): Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  58. Davidson, Russell; MacKinnon, James G. (2004): Econometric Theory and Methods. New York: Oxford University Press.
  59. Skolnik, Richard (2008): Essentials of Global Health. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
  60. Tobin, James (1958): Estimation of Relationships for Limited Dependent Variables. Econometrica 26(1), 24-36.
  61. IHME (2009): Financing Global Health 2009: Tracking Development Assistance for Health. Seattle, WA: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington.
  62. Ravishankar, N.; Gubbins, P.; Cooley, R.; Leach-Kemon, K.; Michaud, C. M.; Jamison, D. T.; Murray, C. J. L. (2009): Financing of Global Health: Tracking Development Assistance for Health from 1990 to 2007. Lancet 373(9681), 2113-2124.
  63. Svensson, Jakob (2000): Foreign aid and rent-seeking. Journal of International Economics 51(2), 437- 461.
  64. Lancaster, Carol (2007): Foreign Aid. Diplomacy, Development, Domestic Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  65. Heap, Shaun P. Hargreaves; Varoufakis, Yanis (2004): Game Theory. A Critical Text. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Routledge.
  66. Pénard, Thierry (2008): Game Theory and Institutions. In: Brousseau; Glachant: New Institutional Economics: A Guidebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 158-179.
  67. OECD (1966): Geographical Distribution of Financial Flows to Less Developed Countries (Disbursement) 1960-1964. Paris: OECD.
  68. Adelman, Carol C. (2009): Global Philanthropy and Remittances: Reinventing Foreign Aid. Brown Journal of World Affairs 15(2), 23-33.
  69. Byers, John A. (1997): Great Circle Distances Between Capital Cities. http://www.chemical- ecology.net/java/capitals.htm (accessed October 15, 2010).
  70. McGillivray, Mark; Dutta, Indranil; Lawson, David (2011): Health Inequality and Development: Achieving Better Health in Developing Countries. In: McGillivray; Dutta; Lawson: Health Inequality and Development. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 1-19.
  71. Lucas, Adetokunbo O. (2004): Health Policies in Developing Countries. In: Detels; McEwen; Beaglehole; Tanaka: Oxford Textbook of Public Health. 4th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 281-295.
  72. Gwatkin, Davidson R. (2005): How Much Would Poor People Gain from Faster Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals for Health?. Lancet 365(9461), 813-817.
  73. UNDP (2009): Human Development Report 2009. Overcoming Barriers: Human Mobility and Development. New York, NY: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
  74. Miller, Terry; Holmes, Kim R.; Kim, Anthony B.; Riley, Bryan; Roberts, James M.; Walsh, Caroline (2011): 2011 Index of Economic Freedom. Washington, DC; New York, NY: The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal.
  75. Richter, Rudolf (1994): Institutionen ökonomisch analysiert. Zur jüngeren Entwicklung auf einem Gebiet der Wirtschaftstheorie. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck).
  76. Furubotn, Eirik G.; Richter, Rudolf (2005): Institutions and Economic Theory. The Contribution of the New Institutional Economics. 2nd ed. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  77. Bardouille, Raj (2008): International Migration and Remittances in Africa: Towards a Greater Engagement of the Migrant Diaspora in Financing Africa's Development. In: Bardouille; Ndulo; Grieco: Africa's Finances: The Contribution of Remittances. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 1-26.
  78. Martens, Bertin (2002a): Introduction. In: Martens; Mummert; Murrell; Seabright: The Institutional Economics of Foreign Aid. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1-33.
  79. Stock, James H.; Watson, Mark W. (2007): Introduction to Econometrics. 2nd ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Addison Wesley.
  80. McGillivray, Mark; Feeny, Simon; Hermes, Niels; Lensink, Robert (2005): It Works; It Doesn't; It Can, But That Depends?: 50 Years of Controversy over the Macroeconomic Impact of Development Aid. WIDER Research Paper 2005/54, 1-21.
  81. Koch, Dirk-Jan; Dreher, Axel; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Thiele, Rainer (2009): Keeping a Low Profile: What Determines the Allocation of Aid by Non-Governmental Organizations?. World Development 37(5), 902-918.
  82. Glewwe, Paul; Kremer, Michael; Moulin, Sylvie (2009): Many Children Left Behind? Textbooks and Test Scores in Kenya. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 1(1), 112-135.
  83. McGillivray, Mark (2003b): Modelling Aid Allocation: Issues, Approaches and Results. Journal of Economic Development 28(1), 171-188.
  84. Lumsdaine, David Halloran (1993): Moral Vision in International Politics. The Foreign Aid Regime, 1949-1989. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  85. Maizels, Alfred; Nissanke, Machiko K. (1984): Motivations for Aid to Developing Countries. World Development 12(9), 879-900.
  86. Hoeffler, Anke; Outram, Verity (2011): Need, Merit, or Self-Interest -What Determines the Allocation of Aid?. Review of Development Economics 15(2), 237-250.
  87. Lipsky, Michael; Smith, Steven Rathgeb (1989): Nonprofit Organizations, Government, and the Welfare State. Political Science Quarterly 104(4), 625-648.
  88. WHO (2010a): Pertussis Vaccines: WHO Position Paper. Weekly epidemiological record 85(40), 385- 400.
  89. Bishop, Matthew; Green, Michael (2009): Philanthrocapitalism. How Giving Can Save the World. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Press.
  90. Kramer, Mark R. (2008): Philanthropy, Aid, and Investment: Alignment for Impact. In: Brainard; Chollet: Global Development 2.0. Can Philanthropists, the Public, and the Poor Make Poverty History?. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 216-224.
  91. Lu, C.; Schneider, M.; Gubbins, P.; Leach-Kemon, K.; Jamison, D.; Murray, C. (2010): Public Financing of Health in Developing Countries: A Cross-National Systematic Analysis. The Lancet 375(9723), 1375-1387.
  92. Long, J. Scott (1997): Regression Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  93. Martens, Bertin (2002b): Some Policy Conclusions Regarding the Organisations Involved in Foreign Aid. In: Martens; Mummert; Murrell; Seabright: The Institutional Economics of Foreign Aid. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 178-195.
  94. StataCorp (2009): Stata Base Reference Manual: Release 11. College Station, TX: Stata Press.
  95. Powers, Daniel A.; Xie, Yu (2008): Statistical Methods for Categorical Data Analysis. 2nd ed. Bingley: Emerald.
  96. Nunnenkamp, Peter; Thiele, Rainer (2006): Targeting Aid to the Needy and Deserving: Nothing But Promises? World Economy 29(9), 1177-1201.
  97. McKinlay, R. D. (1979): The Aid Relationship: A Foreign Policy Model and Interpretation of the Distributions of Official Bilateral Economic Aid of the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany, 1960-1970. Comparative Political Studies 11(4), 411-464.
  98. Davenport, Michael (1970): The Allocation of Foreign Aid: A Cross Section Study, with Special Reference to the Pearson Commission Report. Bulletin of Economic Research 22(1), 26-42.
  99. Tuman, John P.; Strand, Jonathan R.; Emmert, Craig F. (2009): The Disbursement Pattern of Japanese Foreign Aid: A Reappraisal. Journal of East Asian Studies 9(2), 219-248.
  100. Henderson, P. D. (1971): The Distribution of Official Development Assistance Commitments by Recipient Countries and by Sources. Bulletin of the Oxford University Institute of Economics & Statistics 33(1), 1-20.
  101. Folland, Sherman; Goodman, Allen C.; Stano, Miron (2007): The Economics of Health and Health Care. 5th. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  102. Thorbecke, Erik (2000): The Evolution of the Development Doctrine and the Role of Foreign Aid, 1950-2000. In: Tarp; Hjertholm: Foreign Aid and Development. Lessons Learnt and Directions for the Future. New York: Routledge, 17-47.
  103. McKinlay, R. D.; Little, R. (1978): The French Aid Relationship: A Foreign Policy Model of the Distribution of French Bilateral Aid, 1964–70. Development and Change 9(3), 459-478.
  104. Akerlof, George A. (1970): The Market for "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 84(3), 488-500.
  105. Adelman, Carol C. (2003): The Privatization of Foreign Aid: Reassessing National Largesse. Foreign Affairs 82(6), 9-14.
  106. Dahlman, Carl J. (1979): The Problem of Externality. Journal of Law and Economics 22(1), 141-162.
  107. Voigt, Stefan; Kiwit, Daniel (1998): The Role and Evolution of Beliefs, Habits, Moral Norms, and Institutions. In: Giersch: The Merits of Markets -Critical Issues of the Open Society. Berlin et al.: Springer, 83-108.
  108. Buchanan, James M. (1977): The Samaritan's Dilemma. In: Buchanan: Freedom in Constitutional Contract. Perspectives of a Political Economist. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 169-185.
  109. Hendry, David F. (1995): The Theory of Reduction. In: Hendry: Dynamic Econometrics. Advanced Texts in Econometrics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 344-368.
  110. CIA (2010): The World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ (accessed September 14, 2010).
  111. WHO (2008): The World Health Report 2008: Primary Health Care Now more than Ever. Geneva: WHO.
  112. Beck, Nathaniel (2001): Time-Series-Cross-Section Data: What Have We Learned in the Past Few Years?. Annual Review of Political Science 4(1), 271-293.
  113. Brambor, Thomas; Clark, William Roberts; Golder, Matt (2006): Understanding Interaction Models: Improving Empirical Analyses. Political Analysis 14(1), 63-82.
  114. UNU-WIDER (2008): UNU-WIDER World Income Inequality Database, Version 2.0c, May 2008. United Nations University -World Institute for Development Economics Research (accessed October 6, 2010).
  115. Studenmund, A.H. (2011): Using Econometrics. A Practical Guide. 6th ed. Boston, MA: Pearson Addison Wesley.
  116. Wittkopf, Eugene R. (1972): Western Bilateral Aid Allocations: A Comparative Study of Recipient State Attributes and Aid Received. London: Sage.
  117. McGillivray, Mark (2005): What Determines African Bilateral Aid Receipts?. Journal of International Development 17(8), 1003-1018.
  118. Feeny, Simon; McGillivray, Mark (2008): What Determines Bilateral Aid Allocations? Evidence From Time Series Data. Review of Development Economics 12(3), 515-529.
  119. Chong, Alberto; Gradstein, Mark (2008): What Determines Foreign Aid? The Donors' Perspective. Journal of Development Economics 87(1), 1-13.
  120. Werker, Eric; Ahmed, Faisal Z. (2008): What Do Nongovernmental Organizations Do?. Journal of Economic Perspectives 22, 73-92.
  121. Alesina, Alberto; Dollar, David (2000): Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why?. Journal of Economic Growth 5(1), 33-63.
  122. Martens, Bertin (2005): Why Do Aid Agencies Exist?. Development Policy Review 23(6), 643-663.
  123. Kerner, Andrew (2009): Why Should I Believe You? The Costs and Consequences of Bilateral Investment Treaties. International Studies Quarterly 53(1), 73-102.
  124. WHO (2009): Women and Health. Today's Evidence Tomorrow's Agenda. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO).
  125. WHO (2010b): World Health Statistics 2010. Indicator compendium. Interim version. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO).
  126. Hein, Wolfgang; Kickbusch, Ilona (2010): Global Health, Aid Effectiveness and the Changing Role of the WHO. GIGA Focus 3, 1-7.
  127. Verbeek, Marno (2008): A Guide to Modern Econometrics. 3rd ed. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.
  128. Barbieri, Katherine; Keshk, Omar M.G.; Pollins, Brian M. (2009): Trading Data: Evaluating our Assumptions and Coding Rules. Conflict Management and Peace Science 26(5), 471-491.
  129. Baum, Christopher F. (2006): An Introduction to Modern Econometrics Using Stata. College Station, TX: Stata Press.
  130. OECD (2011): Development Database on Aid from DAC Members: DAC online. http://stats.oecd.org (accessed August 24, 2011).
  131. UN Statistics Division (2010): Demographic Yearbook. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2.htm (accessed October 29, 2010).
  132. Lancaster, Carol (1999): Aid to Africa. So Much to Do, So Little Done. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  133. CEPII (2010): Geodesic distances. http://www.cepii.fr/anglaisgraph/bdd/distances.htm (accessed November 10, 2010).
  134. Freedom House (2009): Freedom in the World 2009. http://www.freedomhouse.org/ (accessed September 6, 2010).
  135. Gwartney, James; Lawson, Robert (2009): 2009 Economic Freedom Dataset, published in: Economic Freedom of the World: 2009 Annual Report. Economic Freedom Network. http://www.freetheworld.com/2009/2009Dataset.xls (accessed September 6, 2010).
  136. Alesina, Alberto; Weder, Beatrice (2002): Do Corrupt Governments Receive Less Foreign Aid?. American Economic Review 92(4), 1126-1137.
  137. Jayasinghe, Saroj (2007): Faith-Based NGOs and Healthcare in Poor Countries: A Preliminary Exploration of Ethical Issues. Journal of Medical Ethics 33(11), 623-626.
  138. Gibson, Clark C.; Andersson, Krister; Ostrom, Elinor; Shivakumar, Sujai (2005): The Samaritan's Dilemma. The Political Economy of Development Aid. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  139. Wall, Howard J. (1995): The Allocation of Official Development Assistance. Journal of Policy Modeling 17(3), 307-314.
  140. Manning, W. G.; Duan, N.; Rogers, W. H. (1987): Monte Carlo Evidence on the Choice between Sample Selection and Two-Part Models. Journal of Econometrics 35(1), 59-82.
  141. Dowling, J. M.; Hiemenz, Ulrich (1985): Biases in the Allocation of Foreign Aid: Some New Evidence. World Development 13(4), 535-541.
  142. Dollar, David; Levin, Victoria (2006): The Increasing Selectivity of Foreign Aid, 1984-2003. World Development 34(12), 2034-2046.
  143. Easterly, William (2009b): How the Millennium Development Goals are Unfair to Africa. World Development 37(1), 26-35.
  144. Berthélemy, Jean-Claude; Tichit, Ariane (2004): Bilateral Donors' Aid Allocation Decisions -A Three-Dimensional Panel Analysis. International Review of Economics & Finance 13(3), 253- 274.
  145. Ai-Chi, Hsu; Shu-Chin, Liu (2008): The Hurdle Models Choice between Truncated Normal and Lognormal. Applied Economics 40(2), 201-207.
  146. Fruttero, Anna; Gauri, Varun (2005): The Strategic Choices of NGOs: Location Decisions in Rural Bangladesh. Journal of Development Studies 41, 759-787.
  147. Feeny, Simon; McGillivray, Mark (2004): Modelling Inter-temporal Aid Allocation: A New Application with an Emphasis on Papua New Guinea. Oxford Development Studies 32(1), 101-118.
  148. Transparency International (2010): Corruption Perception Index. http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi (accessed November 2, 2010).
  149. Amprou, Jacky; Guillaumont, Patrick; Jeanneney, Sylviane Guillaumont (2007): Aid Selectivity According to Augmented Criteria. World Economy 30(5), 733-763.


* Das Dokument ist im Internet frei zugänglich - Hinweise zu den Nutzungsrechten