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Titel:Bildpotentialresonanzen der Aluminium-(100)-Oberfläche
Autor:Winter, Matthias
Weitere Beteiligte: Höfer, Ulrich (Dr. rer. nat.)
Veröffentlicht:2011
URI:https://archiv.ub.uni-marburg.de/diss/z2011/0511
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17192/z2011.0511
URN: urn:nbn:de:hebis:04-z2011-05115
DDC: Physik
Titel(trans.):Image Potential Resonances of the Aluminum (100) Surface
Publikationsdatum:2011-08-15
Lizenz:https://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC-NC/1.0/

Dokument

Schlagwörter:
image potential resonance, Festkörperphysik, Elektron, Zweiphotonenspektroskopie, resonance trapping, surface state, aluminum, gefangene Resonanz, Einfaches Metall, Oberflächenzustand, Angeregter Zustand, Bildpotenzialresonanz, excitation trapping, Spektro, Elektronengas, Bildpotentialresonanz, Mehrphotonen-Spektroskopie

Zusammenfassung:
Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit werden die Bildpotentialresonanzen der (100)-Oberfläche von reinem Aluminium experimentell und theoretisch untersucht. Die Experimente werden mit der Methode der Zweiphotonen-Photoemissions-Spektroskopie sowohl energie- als auch zeitaufgelöst durchgeführt. Besonderes Augenmerk der theoretischen Betrachtungen liegt auf der Wechselwirkung zwischen Oberflächen- und Volumenzuständen. Dazu werden umfassende numerische Berechnungen vorgenommen. Bildpotentialresonanzen auf Al(100) sind ein System, bei dem eine vollständige Rydbergserie stark an ein Zustandskontinuum koppelt und das sich als einfaches Metall gut eignet, um theoretische Überlegungen zur Struktur des Potentials an Metalloberflächen zu überprüfen. Dies ist die erste hochauflösende Untersuchung von Bildpotentialresonanzen mit derart starkem Resonanzcharakter. Erstmals wird experimentell nachgewiesen, dass einzelne Bildpotentialresonanzen auf einer Aluminiumoberfläche existieren. Auf der (100)-Oberfläche von Aluminium wird die zweite bis fünfte Bildpotentialresonanz aufgelöst und sowohl ihre Bindungsenergien als auch ihre Lebensdauern bestimmt. Die Bindungsenergien der Bildpotentialresonanzen bilden eine Rydbergserie von Zuständen, die im Rahmen der Messgenauigkeit ohne Quantendefekt a auskommt (a=0,022±0,035). Die effektive Masse der Elektronen in der zweiten Bildpotentialresonanz wird mit Hilfe winkelabhängiger Messungen auf 1,01±0,11 Elektronenmassen bestimmt. Die Lebensdauern der Resonanzen verhalten sich ab n=2 gemäß (1,0±0,2)·n³ fs. Dichtematrix-Rechnungen zeigen, dass sich die experimentell beobachteten Lebensdauern gut dadurch erklären lassen, dass die Elektronen in das Metallvolumen zerfallen. Dabei führt der Effekt der gefangenen Resonanzen (resonance trapping) zu längeren Lebensdauern. Im Widerspruch zu den gängigen theoretischen Modellen für Bildpotentialzustände auf Metalloberflächen ist die erste Bildpotentialresonanz auf der (100)-Oberfläche von Aluminium in der Zweiphotonen-Photoemissions-Spektroskopie nicht sichtbar. Es wird gezeigt, dass die starke Kopplung der Oberflächenzustände an Volumenzustände und die damit verbundene Bildung gefangener Resonanzen dieses Phänomen erklären kann. Auch der Fano-Effekt kann in energieaufgelösten Zweiphotonen-Photoemissions-Spektren beobachtet werden. Er macht sich durch eine starke Asymmetrie zwischen den Energien ober- und unterhalb der Resonanzserie bemerkbar.

Summary:
Image-potential resonances on the (100) surface of pure Aluminum are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experiments are conducted both energy- and time-resolved using the method of two-photon photoemission spectroscopy. The main attention of the theoretical examination and extensive numerical calculations is devoted to the interaction between surface and bulk states. Image-potential resonances on Al(100) are a system in which a complete series of discrete Rydberg states strongly couples to a continuum of states. As a simple metal it also provides a good opportunity to test theoretical models of the structure of the potential at metal surfaces. This work represents the first high-resolution investigation of image-potential resonances with such strong resonance character. For the first time, it is demonstrated experimentally that isolated image-potential resonances exist on an Aluminum surface. On the (100) surface of Aluminum the second through fifth image-potential resonance are resolved and both, their energies and lifetimes are measured. The binding energies of the image-potential resonances form a Rydberg series of states. Within the accuracy of the measurement it is not necessary to introduce a quantum defect a (a=0.022±0.035). Using angle-resolved two-photon photoemission spectroscopy the effective mass of electrons in the second image-potential resonance is measured to 1.01±0.11 electron masses. The lifetimes of the resonances increase as (1.0±0.2)·n³ fs starting from n=2. Calculations using the density matrix formalism show that the experimentally observed lifetimes can be explained well by electrons decaying into the bulk. The effect of resonance trapping leads to extended lifetimes in the process. Contrary to common theoretical models of image-potential states at metal surfaces the first image-potential resonance cannot be observed in two-photon photoemission on Al(100). It is shown that this result can be explained by the strong coupling of the surface states to bulk states which causes the trapping of resonances. The Fano effect can be observed in energy dependent two-photon photoemission spectra. It becomes evident through a strong asymmetry between signal intensities at energies below and above the series of resonances.

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