In der Spermatogenese von Drosophila melanogaster wird das Chromatin-assoziierte Protein Mst77F in seiner Translation, in seiner Kernlokalisation und in seiner Chromatin-kompaktierenden Funktion über distinkte Bereiche kontrolliert.

In der Spermiogenese von Drosophila wird im Kanustadium der Wechsel von einer auf Histonen- zu einer auf Protaminen basierenden Chromatinstruktur von einer großen Menge an DNA Brüchen begleitet. Die Analyse der Induktion wie auch der Reparatur dieser Brüche, liegt im Fokus des ersten Teils dieser Di...

Ausführliche Beschreibung

Gespeichert in:
1. Verfasser: Kaiser, Sophie
Beteiligte: Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate (Prof. Dr.) (BetreuerIn (Doktorarbeit))
Format: Dissertation
Sprache:Deutsch
Veröffentlicht: Philipps-Universität Marburg 2014
Biologie
Ausgabe:http://dx.doi.org/10.17192/z2014.0377
Schlagworte:
Online Zugang:PDF-Volltext
Tags: Tag hinzufügen
Keine Tags, Fügen Sie den ersten Tag hinzu!

1. Li, C.; Vagin, V.V.; Lee, S.; Xu, J.; Ma, S. et al. (2009) Collapse of germline piRNAs in the absence of Argonaute3 reveals somatic piRNAs in flies. Cell 137(3): 509-21.


2. Wente, S.R.; Rout, M.P. (2010) The nuclear pore complex and nuclear transport. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 2(10): a000562.


3. Schulz, R.A.; Miksch, J.L.; Xie, X.L.; Cornish, J.A.; Galewsky, S. (1990) Expression of the Drosophila gonadal gene: alternative promoters control the germ-line expression of monocistronic and bicistronic gene transcripts. Development (Cambridge, England) 108(4): 613-22.


4. Brand, A.H.; Perrimon, N. (1993) Targeted gene expression as a means of altering cell fates and generating dominant phenotypes. Development (Cambridge, England) 118(2): 401-15.


5. Schneider, I. (1972) Cell lines derived from late embryonic stages of Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of embryology and experimental morphology 27(2): 353-65.


6. Kempe, E.; Muhs, B.; Schafer, M. (1993) Gene regulation in Drosophila spermatogenesis: analysis of protein binding at the translational control element TCE. Developmental genetics 14(6): 449-59.


7. Schafer, M.; Nayernia, K.; Engel, W.; Schafer, U. (1995) Translational control in spermatogenesis. Developmental biology 172(2): 344-52.


8. Steger, K. (2001) Haploid spermatids exhibit translationally repressed mRNAs. Anatomy and embryology 203(5): 323-34.


9. Schulz, R.A.; Xie, X.L.; Miksch, J.L. (1990) cis-acting sequences required for the germ line expression of the Drosophila gonadal gene. Developmental biology 140(2): 455-8.


10. Vinson, C. ; Acharya, A. ; Taparowsky, E. J. (2006) Deciphering B-ZIP transcription factor interactions in vitro and in vivo. Biochimica et biophysica acta 1759(1-2): 4-12.


11. Rathke, C.; Baarends, W.M.; Awe, S.; Renkawitz-Pohl, R. (2014) Chromatin dynamics during spermiogenesis. Biochimica et biophysica acta 1839(3): 155-68.


12. Chen, D.; McKearin, D. (2003) Dpp signaling silences bam transcription directly to establish asymmetric divisions of germline stem cells. Current biology : CB 13(20): 1786-91.


13. Rathke, C.; Barckmann, B.; Burkhard, S.; Jayaramaiah-Raja, S.; Roote, J. et al. (2010) Distinct functions of Mst77F and protamines in nuclear shaping and chromatin condensation during Drosophila spermiogenesis. European journal of cell biology 89(4): 326-38.


14. Cho, C.; Willis, W.D.; Goulding, E.H.; Jung-Ha, H.; Choi, Y. C. et al. (2001) Haploinsufficiency of protamine-1 or -2 causes infertility in mice. Nature genetics 28(1): 82-6.


15. Prasad, R.; Singhal, R.K.; Srivastava, D.K.; Molina, J.T.; Tomkinson, A.E. et al. (1996) Specific interaction of DNA polymerase beta and DNA ligase I in a multiprotein base excision repair complex from bovine testis. The Journal of biological chemistry 271(27): 16000-7.


16. Lindsley, D. & Tokuyasu, K.T. (1980) Spermatogenesis. In: Ashburner, M., Wright, T.R.F. (Eds.), Genetics and Biology of Drosophila. Vol. 2d. Academic Press, New York, USA, 225-294


17. Le, S.Y.; Maizel, J.V.J. (1997) A common RNA structural motif involved in the internal initiation of translation of cellular mRNAs. Nucleic acids research 25(2): 362-69.


18. Snel, B.; Lehmann, G.; Bork, P.; Huynen, M.A. (2000) STRING: a web-server to retrieve and display the repeatedly occurring neighbourhood of a gene. Nucleic acids research 28(18): 3442-4.


19. Yepiskoposyan, H.; Egli, D.; Fergestad, T.; Selvaraj, A.; Treiber, C. et al. (2006) Transcriptome response to heavy metal stress in Drosophila reveals a new zinc transporter that confers resistance to zinc. Nucleic acids research 34(17): 4866-77.


20. Kibbe, W.A. (2007) OligoCalc: an online oligonucleotide properties calculator. Nucleic acids research 35(Web Server issue): W43-6.


21. Tweedie, S.; Ashburner, M.; Falls, K.; Leyland, P.; McQuilton, P. et al. (2009) FlyBase: enhancing Drosophila Gene Ontology annotations. Nucleic acids research 37(Database issue): D555-9.


22. Zhao, J.; Klyne, G.; Benson, E.; Gudmannsdottir, E.; White-Cooper, H. et al. (2010) FlyTED: the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database. Nucleic acids research 38(Database issue): D710-5.


23. Letunic, I.; Doerks, T.; Bork, P. (2012) SMART 7: recent updates to the protein domain annotation resource. Nucleic acids research 40(Database issue): D302-5.


24. Kuchta, K.; Barszcz, D.; Grzesiuk, E.; Pomorski, P.; Krwawicz, J. (2012) DNAtraffic--a new database for systems biology of DNA dynamics during the cell life. Nucleic acids research 40(Database issue): D1235-40.


25. Leduc, F.; Maquennehan, V.; Nkoma, G.B.; Boissonneault, G. (2008) DNA damage response during chromatin remodeling in elongating spermatids of mice. Biology of reproduction 78(2): 324- 32.


26. Jorgensen, E.M.; Garber, R.L. (1987) Function and misfunction of the two promoters of the Drosophila Antennapedia gene. Genes and development 1(6): 544-55.


27. Riggleman, B.; Wieschaus, E.; Schedl, P. (1989) Molecular analysis of the armadillo locus: uniformly distributed transcripts and a protein with novel internal repeats are associated with a Drosophila segment polarity gene. Genes and development 3(1): 96-113.


28. Braun, R.E.; Peschon, J.J.; Behringer, R.R.; Brinster, R.L.; Palmiter, R.D. (1989) Protamine 3'- untranslated sequences regulate temporal translational control and subcellular localization of growth hormone in spermatids of transgenic mice. Genes and development 3(6): 793-802.


29. Sassone-Corsi, P. (2002) Unique chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation in spermatogenesis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296(5576): 2176-8.


30. Cote, J.; Ruiz-Carrillo, A. (1993) Primers for mitochondrial DNA replication generated by endonuclease G. Science (New York, N.Y.) 261(5122): 765-9.


31. Rathke, C.; Baarends, W.M.; Jayaramaiah-Raja, S.; Bartkuhn, M.; Renkawitz, R. et al. (2007) Transition from a nucleosome-based to a protamine-based chromatin configuration during spermiogenesis in Drosophila. Journal of cell science 120(Pt 9): 1689-700.


32. Kohler, M.; Ansieau, S.; Prehn, S.; Leutz, A.; Haller, H. et al. (1997) Cloning of two novel human importin-alpha subunits and analysis of the expression pattern of the importin-alpha protein family. FEBS letters 417(1): 104-8.


33. Chintapalli, V.R.; Wang, J.; Dow, J.A.T. (2007) Using FlyAtlas to identify better Drosophila melanogaster models of human disease. Nature genetics 39(6): 715-20.


34. Rubin, G.M.; Spradling, A.C. (1982) Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors. Science (New York, N.Y.) 218(4570): 348-53.


35. Braun, R.E. (1998) Post-transcriptional control of gene expression during spermatogenesis. Seminars in cell and developmental biology 9(4): 483-9.


36. Chomczynski, P.; Sacchi, N. (2006) The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on. Nature protocols 1(2): 581-5.


37. Pittoggi, C. ; Renzi, L. ; Zaccagnini, G. ; Cimini, D. ; Degrassi, F. et al. (1999) A fraction of mouse sperm chromatin is organized in nucleosomal hypersensitive domains enriched in retroposon DNA. Journal of cell science 112(20): 3537-48.


38. Tokuyasu, K. T. ; Peacock, W. J. ; Hardy, R. W. (1972) Dynamics of spermiogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Individualization process. Zeitschrift fur Zellforschung und mikroskopische Anatomie (Vienna, Austria : 1948) 124(4): 479-506.


39. Stros, M.; Launholt, D.; Grasser, K.D. (2007) The HMG-box: a versatile protein domain occurring in a wide variety of DNA-binding proteins. Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS 64(19-20): 2590-606.


40. Cabrero, J.; Palomino-Morales, R.J.; Camacho, J.P.M. (2007) The DNA-repair Ku70 protein is located in the nucleus and tail of elongating spermatids in grasshoppers. Chromosome research : an international journal on the molecular, supramolecular and evolutionary aspects of chromosome biology 15(8): 1093-100.


41. Brand, A.H.; Manoukian, A.S.; Perrimon, N. (1994) Ectopic expression in Drosophila. Methods in cell biology 44635-54.


42. Xuan, T.; Xin, T.; He, J.; Tan, J.; Gao, Y. et al. (2013) dBre1/dSet1-dependent pathway for histone H3K4 trimethylation has essential roles in controlling germline stem cell maintenance and germ cell differentiation in the Drosophila ovary. Developmental biology 379(2): 167-81.


43. Sotolongo, B.; Huang, T.T.F.; Isenberger, E.; Ward, W.S. (2005) An endogenous nuclease in hamster, mouse, and human spermatozoa cleaves DNA into loop-sized fragments. Journal of andrology 26(2): 272-80.


44. Kim, V. N. ; Han, J. ; Siomi, M. C. (2009) Biogenesis of small RNAs in animals. Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology 10(2): 126-39.


45. Prakash, L. (1981) Characterization of postreplication repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and effects of rad6, rad18, rev3 and rad52 mutations. Molecular and general genetics : MGG 184(3): 471-8.


46. Ripp, C. (2009). Chromatin remodelling during spermiogenesis: characterization of the Drosophila mutant snowballs and analyses of topoisomerase expression during the switch from histones to protamines – Masterarbeit. Entwicklungsbiologie, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Roest, H.P.; van Klaveren, J.; de Wit, J.; van Gurp, C.G.; Koken, M.H. et al. (1996) Inactivation of the HR6B ubiquitin-conjugating DNA repair enzyme in mice causes male sterility associated with chromatin modification. Cell 86(5): 799-810.


47. Rathke, C. (2007) Chromatinveränderungen während der Spermienentwicklung von Drosophila melanogaster -von Histonen zu Protaminen -Dissertation. Entwicklungsbiologie, Philipps-Universität Marburg.


48. Pirotta, V. (1986). Cloning Drosophila genes. Curr. Biol 10, 81-83.


49. Conti, E.; Uy, M.; Leighton, L.; Blobel, G.; Kuriyan, J. (1998) Crystallographic analysis of the recognition of a nuclear localization signal by the nuclear import factor karyopherin alpha. Cell 94(2): 193-204.


50. Kaiser, S. (2010) Die Induktion von DNA-Strangbrüchen und deren Reparatur während der Umstrukturierung des Chromatins in der Spermiogenese von Drosophila melanogaster - Masterarbeit. Entwicklungsbiologie, Philipps-Universität Marburg.


51. Lehman, I.R. (1974) DNA ligase: structure, mechanism, and function. Science (New York, N.Y.) 186(4166): 790-7.


52. Creancier, L.; Morello, D.; Mercier, P.; Prats, A. C. (2000) Fibroblast growth factor 2 internal LITERATUR gene expression during spermatogenesis: identification of regulatory element by transgenic mouse. Biology of reproduction 70(5): 1239-45.


53. Tsuji, L.; Takumi, T.; Imamoto, N.; Yoneda, Y. (1997) Identification of novel homologues of mouse importin alpha, the alpha subunit of the nuclear pore-targeting complex, and their tissue- specific expression. FEBS letters 416(1): 30-4.


54. Zenkel, M.; Kruse, F.E.; Naumann, G.O.H.; Schlotzer-Schrehardt, U. (2007) Impaired cytoprotective mechanisms in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome/glaucoma. Investigative ophthalmology and visual science 48(12): 5558-66.


55. Mathe, E.; Bates, H.; Huikeshoven, H.; Deak, P.; Glover, D.M. et al. (2000) Importin-alpha3 is required at multiple stages of Drosophila development and has a role in the completion of oogenesis. LITERATUR (2000) A cell cycle-dependent protein serves as a template-specific translation initiation factor. Genes and development 14(16): 2028-45.


56. Abb. 7.4: Mit Hilfe des Hefe-Zwei-Hybrid Systems ist keine Interaktion von Mst77F mit Ocnus und CG12861 nachweisbar. Gezeigt sind Interaktionstests mit Hilfe des Hefe-Zwei-Hybrid Systems. (1) zeigt die Negativkontrolle und (2) die Positivkontrolle. In der Positivkontrolle ist eine Interaktion der zu testeten Proteine durch ein Wachstum und eine Blaufärbung der Kolonien ersichtlich. (3-10) Die ausgestrichenen Kotransformanten weisen keine Blaufärbung der Kolonien auf und zeigen somit keine Interaktion der


57. Sambrook, J.; Fritsch, E.F.; Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor Sarcevic, B.; Mawson, A.; Baker, R.T.; Sutherland, R.L. (2002) Regulation of the ubiquitin- conjugating enzyme hHR6A by CDK-mediated phosphorylation. The EMBO journal 21(8): 2009-18.


58. Saiki, R.K.; Gelfand, D.H.; Stoffel, S.; Scharf, S.J.; Higuchi, R. et al. (1988) Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. Science (New York, N.Y.) 239(4839):487-91.


59. Lopez-Lastra, M.; Rivas, A.; Barria, M.I. (2005) Protein synthesis in eukaryotes: the growing biological relevance of cap-independent translation initiation. Biological research 38(2-3): 121-46.


60. Abb. 7.3: Das Mst77F-Protein zeigt weder Selbstinteraktion noch eine Interaktion mit den Protaminen und Tpl 94D im Hefe-Zwei-Hybrid System. Interaktionstests mit Hilfe des Hefe-Zwei-Hybrid Systems. (1) Negativkontrolle und (2) Positivkontrolle. Bei einer positiven Interaktion sind ein Wachstum und eine Blaufärbung der Kolonien ersichtlich. (3-17) Die ausgestrichenen Transformanten und Kotransformanten zeigen keine Blaufärbung und somit auch keine Interaktion der Fusionsproteine. (3) Mst77F-Proteine zeigen keine Selbstinteraktion und interagiert weder mit (8,9) Protamin A, (12,13) Protamin B, noch mit (16,17) Tpl 94D .


61. White-Cooper, H.; Schafer, M.A.; Alphey, L.S.; Fuller, M.T. (1998) Transcriptional and post- transcriptional control mechanisms coordinate the onset of spermatid differentiation with meiosis I in LITERATUR Drosophila. Development (Cambridge, England) 125(1): 125-34.


62. Yanicostas, C. ; Lepesant, J. A. (1990) Transcriptional and translational cis-regulatory sequences of the spermatocyte-specific Drosophila janusB gene are located in the 3' exonic region of the overlapping janusA gene. Molecular and general genetics : MGG 224(3): 450-8.


63. Spradling, A.C.; Rubin, G.M. (1982) Transposition of cloned P elements into Drosophila germ line chromosomes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 218(4570): 341-7.


64. Ulrich, H.D.; Jentsch, S. (2000) Two RING finger proteins mediate cooperation between ubiquitin- conjugating enzymes in DNA repair. The EMBO journal 19(13): 3388-97.


65. Chen, H.Y.; Sun, J.M.; Zhang, Y.; Davie, J.R.; Meistrich, M.L. (1998) Ubiquitination of histone H3 in elongating spermatids of rat testes. The Journal of biological chemistry 273(21): 13165-9.


66. Thummel, C. S. ; Boulet, A. M. ; Lipshitz, H. D. (1988) Vectors for Drosophila P-element-mediated transformation and tissue culture transfection. Gene 74(2): 445-56.


67. Braun, R.E. (2001) Packaging paternal chromosomes with protamine. Nature genetics 28(1): 10-2.


68. Mason, J.M.; Arndt, K.M. (2004) Coiled coil domains: stability, specificity, and biological implications. Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology 5(2): 170-6.


69. White-Cooper, H. (2010) Molecular mechanisms of gene regulation during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Reproduction (Cambridge, England) 139(1): 11-21.


70. Koken, M.H.; Hoogerbrugge, J.W.; Jasper-Dekker, I.; de Wit, J.; Willemsen, R. et al. (1996) Expression of the ubiquitin-conjugating DNA repair enzymes HHR6A and B suggests a role in spermatogenesis and chromatin modification. Developmental biology 173(1): 119-32.


71. Cho,C.; Jung-Ha, H.; Willis, W.D.; Goulding, E.H.; Stein, P. et al. (2003) Protamine 2 deficiency leads to sperm DNA damage and embryo death in mice. Biology of reproduction 69(1): 211-7.


72. Marcon, L.; Boissonneault, G. (2004) Transient DNA strand breaks during mouse and human spermiogenesis new insights in stage specificity and link to chromatin remodeling. Biology of reproduction 70(4): 910-8.


73. Laberge, R.; Boissonneault, G. (2005) On the nature and origin of DNA strand breaks in elongating spermatids. Biology of reproduction 73(2): 289-96.


74. Shaman, J.A.; Prisztoka, R.; Ward, W.S. (2006) Topoisomerase IIB and an extracellular nuclease interact to digest sperm DNA in an apoptotic-like manner. Biology of reproduction 75(5): 741-8.


75. Stewart, M. (2007) Molecular mechanism of the nuclear protein import cycle. Nature reviews. LITERATUR Molecular cell biology 8(3): 195-208.


76. Jayaramaiah Raja, S.; Renkawitz-Pohl, R. (2005) Replacement by Drosophila melanogaster protamines and Mst77F of histones during chromatin condensation in late spermatids and role of sesame in the removal of these proteins from the male pronucleus. Molecular and cellular biology 25(14): 6165-77.


77. Schupbach, T.; Wieschaus, E. (1991) Female sterile mutations on the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. II. Mutations blocking oogenesis or altering egg morphology. Genetics 129(4): 1119-36.


78. James, P.; Halladay, J.; Craig, E.A. (1996) Genomic libraries and a host strain designed for highly efficient two-hybrid selection in yeast. Genetics 144(4): 1425-36.


79. Kusano, A.; Staber, C.; Ganetzky, B. (2002) Segregation distortion induced by wild-type RanGAP in Drosophila. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99(10): 6866-70.


80. Williams, R.W.; Rubin, G.M. (2002) ARGONAUTE1 is required for efficient RNA interference in Drosophila embryos. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99(10): 6889-94.


81. Lippai, M.; Tirian, L.; Boros, I.; Mihaly, J.; Erdelyi, M. et al. (2000) The Ketel gene encodes a Drosophila homologue of importin-beta. Genetics 156(4): 1889-900.


82. Mason, D.A.; Fleming, R.J.; Goldfarb, D.S. (2002) Drosophila melanogaster importin alpha1 and alpha3 can replace importin alpha2 during spermatogenesis but not oogenesis. Genetics 161(1): 157- 70.


83. Yan, W.; Ma, L.; Burns, K. H.; Matzuk, M.M. (2003) HILS1 is a spermatid-specific linker histone H1-like protein implicated in chromatin remodeling during mammalian spermiogenesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(18): 10546-51.


84. Boutanaev, A.M.; Mikhaylova, L.M.; Nurminsky, D.I. (2007) Up-regulation of the Ku heterodimer in Drosophila testicular cyst cells. FEBS letters 581(9): 1707-15.


85. Kierszenbaum, A.L.; Tres, L.L. (1975) Structural and transcriptional features of the mouse spermatid genome. The Journal of cell biology 65(2): 258-70.


86. Torok, I.; Strand, D.; Schmitt, R.; Tick, G.; Torok, T. et al. (1995) The overgrown hematopoietic organs-31 tumor suppressor gene of Drosophila encodes an Importin-like protein accumulating in the nucleus at the onset of mitosis. The Journal of cell biology 129(6): 1473-89.


87. Markstein, M.; Pitsouli, C.; Villalta, C.; Celniker, S.E.; Perrimon, N. (2008) Exploiting position effects and the gypsy retrovirus insulator to engineer precisely expressed transgenes. Nature genetics 40(4): 476-83.


88. Jang, S.K.; Krausslich, H.G.; Nicklin, M.J.; Duke, G.M.; Palmenberg, A.C. et al. (1988) A segment of the 5' nontranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA directs internal entry of ribosomes during in vitro translation. Journal of virology 62(8): 2636-43.


89. Temme, C.; Weissbach, R.; Lilie, H.; Wilson, C.; Meinhart, A. et al. (2009) The Drosophila melanogaster Gene cg4930 Encodes a High Affinity Inhibitor for Endonuclease G. The Journal of biological chemistry 284(13): 8337-48.


90. Rangan, P.; DeGennaro, M.; Jaime-Bustamante, K.; Coux, R.; Martinho, R.G. et al. (2009) Temporal and spatial control of germ-plasm RNAs. Current biology : CB 19(1): 72-7.


91. Vibranovski, M.D.; Lopes, H.F.; Karr, T.L.; Long, M. (2009) Stage-specific expression profiling of Drosophila spermatogenesis suggests that meiotic sex chromosome inactivation drives genomic relocation of testis-expressed genes. PLoS genetics 5(11): e1000731.


92. Krsticevic, F.J.; Santos, H.L.; Januario, S.; Schrago, C.G.; Carvalho, A.B. (2010) Functional copies of the Mst77F gene on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 184(1): 295- 307.


93. Vibranovski, M.D.; Chalopin, D.S.; Lopes, H.F.; Long, M.; Karr, T.L. (2010) Direct evidence for postmeiotic transcription during Drosophila melanogaster spermatogenesis. Genetics 186(1): 431-3.


94. White-Cooper, H. ; Davidson, I. (2011) Unique aspects of transcription regulation in male germ cells. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 3(7): a002626


95. Schulze, J.M.; Jackson, J.; Nakanishi, S.; Gardner, J.M.; Hentrich, T. et al. (2009) Linking cell cycle to histone modifications: SBF and H2B monoubiquitination machinery and cell-cycle regulation of H3K79 dimethylation. Molecular cell 35(5): 626-41.


96. Thompson, S.R. (2012) Tricks an IRES uses to enslave ribosomes. Trends in microbiology 20(11): 558-66.


97. Yano, R.; Oakes, M.; Yamaghishi, M.; Dodd, J.A.; Nomura, M. (1992) Cloning and characterization of SRP1, a suppressor of temperature-sensitive RNA polymerase I mutations, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular and cellular biology 12(12): 5640-51.


98. Steller, H.; Pirrotta, V. (1986) P transposons controlled by the heat shock promoter. Molecular and cellular biology 6(5): 1640-9.


99. St Pierre, S.E.; Ponting, L.; Stefancsik, R.; McQuilton, P. (2014) FlyBase 102--advanced approaches to interrogating FlyBase. Nucleic acids research 42(1): D780-8.


100. Koken, M.; Reynolds, P.; Bootsma, D.; Hoeijmakers, J.; Prakash, S. et al. (1991B) Dhr6, a Drosophila homolog of the yeast DNA-repair gene RAD6. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88(9): 3832-6.


101. Koken, M.H.; Reynolds, P.; Jaspers-Dekker, I.; Prakash, L.; Prakash, S. et al. (1991A) Structural and functional conservation of two human homologs of the yeast DNA repair gene RAD6. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88(20): 8865-9.


102. Fusionsproteine. Mst77F interagiert im Hefe-Zwei-Hybrid System nicht mit den Proteinen Ocnus und CG12861. LITERATUR Bischof, J.; Maeda, R.K.; Hediger, M.; Karch, F.; Basler, K. (2007) An optimized transgenesis system for Drosophila using germ-line-specific phiC31 integrases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(9): 3312-7.


103. Wu, J.; Feng, L.; Hsieh, T. (2010) Drosophila topo IIIalpha is required for the maintenance of mitochondrial genome and male germ-line stem cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107(14): 6228-33.


104. Karess, R.E.; Rubin, G.M. (1984) Analysis of P transposable element functions in Drosophila. Cell 38(1): 135-46.


105. Riparbelli, M.G.; Callaini, G. (2007) The Drosophila parkin homologue is required for normal mitochondrial dynamics during spermiogenesis. Developmental biology 303(1): 108-20.


106. Wouters-Tyrou, D.; Martinage, A.; Chevaillier, P.; Sautiere, P. (1998) Nuclear basic proteins in spermiogenesis. Biochimie 80(2): 117-28.


107. Chang, T.; Huang, H.; Hsu, J.B.; Weng, S.; Horng, J. et al. (2013) An enhanced computational platform for investigating the roles of regulatory RNA and for identifying functional RNA motifs. BMC bioinformatics 14 Suppl 2S4.