On the growth performance of two competing species in an Andean pasture of southern Ecuador - monitoring and simulations

The megadiverse tropical mountain forests in the southeastern Andes of Ecuador, including their biodiversity and ecosystem services, are severely threatened due to climate warming and the clearing of forests to produce pasture land. The common local practice of recurrent burning for pasture rejuvena...

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1. Verfasser: Silva, Brenner Stefan Gomes
Beteiligte: Bendix, Jörg (Prof. Dr.) (BetreuerIn (Doktorarbeit))
Format: Dissertation
Sprache:Englisch
Veröffentlicht: Philipps-Universität Marburg 2013
Geographie
Ausgabe:http://dx.doi.org/10.17192/z2013.0089
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url http://archiv.ub.uni-marburg.de/diss/z2013/0089/pdf/dbs.pdf
topic Modellierung
Geowissenschaften
Climate Monitoring
Meteorologische Beobachtung
Remote Sensing
Vegetation Modelling
Fernerkundung
Regenwald
Ecuador
Vegetation
Klima
Bracken Fern
Plant Physiology
Andenhochland
spellingShingle Modellierung
Geowissenschaften
Climate Monitoring
Meteorologische Beobachtung
Remote Sensing
Vegetation Modelling
Fernerkundung
Regenwald
Ecuador
Vegetation
Klima
Bracken Fern
Plant Physiology
Andenhochland
Silva, Brenner Stefan Gomes
On the growth performance of two competing species in an Andean pasture of southern Ecuador - monitoring and simulations
Der Bergregenwald in den südöstlichen Anden von Ecuador mit seiner außergewöhnlich hohen Artenvielfalt und seinen wichtigen Ökosystemleistungen ist stark bedroht. Dies ist vor allem eine Folge von Klimaerwärmung und Landnutzungsänderungen. Auf Weideflächen erweist sich das landesübliche Abbrennen als nicht nachhaltige Pflegemaßnahme. Abbrennen begünstigt die Verbreitung von für die Weidewirtschaft kontraproduktiven Pflanzenarten. Dies führt zum Verlassen der stark verunkrauteten Weideflächen und zur weiteren Abholzung von natürlichen Waldgebieten. Bislang waren keine quantitativen Angaben über das Wachstumspotenzial der in Südecuador vorkommenden Nutzpflanzen und deren Konkurrenten unter lokalen Umweltbedingungen verfügbar. Damit fehlten wissenschaftliche Grundlagen zur Entwicklung Strategien, welche nachhaltige Weidewirtschaft und Waldschutz gleichzeitig ermöglichen. Daher war Ziel dieser Arbeit die Untersuchung des Wachstumspotenzials zwei konkurrierenden Pflanzenarten - der südliche Adlerfarn (Pteridium arachnoideum) und das Weidegras (Setaria sphacelata) - unter aktuellen und zukünftigen klimatischen Bedingungen. Die Ergebnisse sind Erkenntnisse und methodische Entwicklungen zu der bisher wissenschaftlich unerforschten Verunkrautung von Weideflächen durch den Adlerfarn in Südecuador. Im Rahmen der Arbeit wurde das Southern Bracken Competition Model (SoBraCoMo) entwickelt, auf die zu untersuchenden Pflanzenarten parametrisiert und validiert. Der Quellcode des Modells basiert auf state-of-the-art SVAT- (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) und Vegetationsdynamik-Modellen. Verschiedene Feldmessungen und die Erhebung von meteorologischen Daten liefern neue standort- und pflanzenartspezifische Parameter für eine realitätsnahe Simulation. Zur Beobachtung des Wachstums nach Bränden und zur Erhebung meteorologischer Daten wurde ein experimentelles Untersuchungsgebiet eingerichtet. Um unter anderen artspezifischen Bodenbedeckungen zu erkunden, konnte ein Monitoringsystem mit Installation von Standard- und Infrarotkameras an einem Heliumballon entwickelt und eingesetzt werden. Die Ergebnisse weisen für aktuelle Klimawerte und ungestörte lokale Bedingungen (keine Beweidung / Trampeln, keine Beschattung) eine geringfügig höhere Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Weidegrases aus. Es wird gezeigt, dass sich dieser Wachstumsvorteil bei einer weiteren Klimaerwärmung noch erhöhen würde. Da Feldbeobachtungen dennoch auf eine Verdrängung des Weidegrases hindeuten, müssen andere Faktoren für den Erfolg des Adlerfarns verantwortlich sein. Wahrscheinlichster Faktor hierfür ist die Beweidung selbst. Diese beeinträchtigt das Weidegras stärker als den Adlerfarn. Das Modell SoBraCoMo kann als hervorragende Grundlage für zukünftige wissenschaftliche Arbeiten auf diesem Gebiet eingesetzt werden.
ref_str_mv references
institution Geographie
oai_set_str_mv ddc:550
doc-type:doctoralThesis
open_access
xMetaDissPlus
dewey-raw 550
dewey-search 550
genre Earth sciences
genre_facet Earth sciences
topic_facet Geowissenschaften
author Silva, Brenner Stefan Gomes
doi_str_mv http://dx.doi.org/10.17192/z2013.0089
edition http://dx.doi.org/10.17192/z2013.0089
title On the growth performance of two competing species in an Andean pasture of southern Ecuador - monitoring and simulations
title_short On the growth performance of two competing species in an Andean pasture of southern Ecuador - monitoring and simulations
title_full On the growth performance of two competing species in an Andean pasture of southern Ecuador - monitoring and simulations
title_fullStr On the growth performance of two competing species in an Andean pasture of southern Ecuador - monitoring and simulations
title_full_unstemmed On the growth performance of two competing species in an Andean pasture of southern Ecuador - monitoring and simulations
title_sort On the growth performance of two competing species in an Andean pasture of southern Ecuador - monitoring and simulations
language English
contents Der Bergregenwald in den südöstlichen Anden von Ecuador mit seiner außergewöhnlich hohen Artenvielfalt und seinen wichtigen Ökosystemleistungen ist stark bedroht. Dies ist vor allem eine Folge von Klimaerwärmung und Landnutzungsänderungen. Auf Weideflächen erweist sich das landesübliche Abbrennen als nicht nachhaltige Pflegemaßnahme. Abbrennen begünstigt die Verbreitung von für die Weidewirtschaft kontraproduktiven Pflanzenarten. Dies führt zum Verlassen der stark verunkrauteten Weideflächen und zur weiteren Abholzung von natürlichen Waldgebieten. Bislang waren keine quantitativen Angaben über das Wachstumspotenzial der in Südecuador vorkommenden Nutzpflanzen und deren Konkurrenten unter lokalen Umweltbedingungen verfügbar. Damit fehlten wissenschaftliche Grundlagen zur Entwicklung Strategien, welche nachhaltige Weidewirtschaft und Waldschutz gleichzeitig ermöglichen. Daher war Ziel dieser Arbeit die Untersuchung des Wachstumspotenzials zwei konkurrierenden Pflanzenarten - der südliche Adlerfarn (Pteridium arachnoideum) und das Weidegras (Setaria sphacelata) - unter aktuellen und zukünftigen klimatischen Bedingungen. Die Ergebnisse sind Erkenntnisse und methodische Entwicklungen zu der bisher wissenschaftlich unerforschten Verunkrautung von Weideflächen durch den Adlerfarn in Südecuador. Im Rahmen der Arbeit wurde das Southern Bracken Competition Model (SoBraCoMo) entwickelt, auf die zu untersuchenden Pflanzenarten parametrisiert und validiert. Der Quellcode des Modells basiert auf state-of-the-art SVAT- (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) und Vegetationsdynamik-Modellen. Verschiedene Feldmessungen und die Erhebung von meteorologischen Daten liefern neue standort- und pflanzenartspezifische Parameter für eine realitätsnahe Simulation. Zur Beobachtung des Wachstums nach Bränden und zur Erhebung meteorologischer Daten wurde ein experimentelles Untersuchungsgebiet eingerichtet. Um unter anderen artspezifischen Bodenbedeckungen zu erkunden, konnte ein Monitoringsystem mit Installation von Standard- und Infrarotkameras an einem Heliumballon entwickelt und eingesetzt werden. Die Ergebnisse weisen für aktuelle Klimawerte und ungestörte lokale Bedingungen (keine Beweidung / Trampeln, keine Beschattung) eine geringfügig höhere Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Weidegrases aus. Es wird gezeigt, dass sich dieser Wachstumsvorteil bei einer weiteren Klimaerwärmung noch erhöhen würde. Da Feldbeobachtungen dennoch auf eine Verdrängung des Weidegrases hindeuten, müssen andere Faktoren für den Erfolg des Adlerfarns verantwortlich sein. Wahrscheinlichster Faktor hierfür ist die Beweidung selbst. Diese beeinträchtigt das Weidegras stärker als den Adlerfarn. Das Modell SoBraCoMo kann als hervorragende Grundlage für zukünftige wissenschaftliche Arbeiten auf diesem Gebiet eingesetzt werden.
format Dissertation
publishDate 2013
era_facet 2013
last_indexed 2013-03-12T23:59:59Z
first_indexed 2013-03-12T00:00:00Z
author2 Bendix, Jörg (Prof. Dr.)
author2_role ths
publisher Philipps-Universität Marburg
title_alt Wachstumspotential von zwei konkurrierenden Arten auf einer Weidefläche in den Anden Süd-Ecuadors
building Fachbereich Geographie
license_str http://archiv.ub.uni-marburg.de/adm/urhg.html
description The megadiverse tropical mountain forests in the southeastern Andes of Ecuador, including their biodiversity and ecosystem services, are severely threatened due to climate warming and the clearing of forests to produce pasture land. The common local practice of recurrent burning for pasture rejuvenation has proven to be non-sustainable, since it enables bracken fern to invade pastures, causing farmers to abandon heavily infested pastures and instead clear new tracts of natural forest. No quantitative information on the growth potential of pasture grass and bracken fern under current and future environmental conditions has yet been available for the Andes of Ecuador. The scientific basis required to understand bracken invasion has yet to be established. This scientific basis would enable the development of sustainable pasture management strategies. Such strategies would, in turn, help protect the remnants of natural forest. Consequently, the present work aims at investigating the growth potential of two competing species under current and future climate conditions. Outcomes provide new knowledge and methodological developments concerning pasture invasion by bracken fern in southern Ecuador. The method entails the development of a new model, the Southern Bracken Competition Model (SoBraCoMo), realistically parameterized and validated. The model code is based on existing Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) and vegetation dynamic models to calculate the potential growth of two main competitors, the southern bracken fern (Pteridium arachnoideum) and the pasture grass (Setaria sphacelata). Extensive field measurements and proper meteorological forcing delivered new site and species-specific parameters for realistic productivity simulations of both species. An experimental site was established to observe pasture and bracken fern development under the practice of recurrent burning, and to provide atmospheric data for a realistic forcing of the developed model. A novel balloon-borne monitoring system was developed to detect species cover and provided new insights into post-fire canopy recovery. The main results demonstrate that, under current environmental conditions, Setaria has a slightly higher competitive growth potential under undisturbed conditions (no grazing, trampling, or light competition). Furthermore, this growth advantage of Setaria should most likely increase due to global warming. Because field observations show bracken infestation, however, other factors than those investigated should be responsible for the bracken fern’s current success. The most likely cause of bracken success to be investigated in the future is cattle browsing; although browsing continuously removes aboveground biomass, this disruption of the upper soil does not affect deep roots and rhizomes of bracken plants. The newly developed SoBraCoMo can now provide an excellent basis to implement new mechanisms like browsing for future simulations.
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Ecological Modelling, doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.01.016. 2012 Simulating canopy photosynthesis for two competing species of an anthropogenic grassland community in the Andes of southern Ecuador Valeriano, D.M.; Silva, B.S.G., Clear sky irradiance simulation in a mountainous region in Brazil, Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2003. IGARSS '03. Proceedings. 2003 IEEE International , vol.5, no., pp. 3216-3218 vol.5, 2003, doi:10.1109/IGARSS.2003.1294734 2003 Clear sky irradiance simulation in a mountainous region in Brazil, Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium Silva, B. and Bendix, J. 2012, Monitoring and modelling competing grassland species using very-high and high-resolution remote sensing in the Andes of Ecuador. 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Atmosphere-vegetation modelling and assessment of photosynthesis for two grassland competing species. European Geoscience Union -Conference, Vienna, Austria, 02 – 07 May 2010 2010-03 Atmosphere-vegetation modelling and assessment of photosynthesis for two grassland competing species. European Geoscience Union -Conference John I. Pitman, "Absorption of photosynthetically active radiation, radiation use efficiency and spectral reflectance of bracken [Pteridium aquilinum (L .) Kuhnl] Canopies", vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 101-111, 2000. [36]. Y. Wu, F. Y. Shih, J. Shi, Y. Wu, "A top-down region dividing approach for image segmentation", Pattern Recognition, vol. 41, no. 6, 1948-1960, 2008. [37]. R. M. Haralick, K. Shanmugam, I. Dinstein, "Textural Features for Image Classification", IEEE Trans. on Syst., Man and Cybernetics, vol. SMC-3, no. 6, pp. 610-621, 1973. [38]. R.T.T. Forman, Land mosaics: The ecology of landscapes and regions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ch. 4, pp. 141-142. 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Ferrier, " Evaluating the predictive performance of habitat models developed using logistic regression " , Ecological Modelling, vol. 133, pp. 225-245, 2000. 132 Work Experience 2005 Interpretation and audit in the PRODES (Amazonian Forest Monitoring by Satellite) program, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil. 2004 Consultant at " Fortification of Management Council in the Serra da Mantiqueira, Atlantic Forest Protected Area " 2000-2001 System analyst at PROGEO (LLC), Pantanal, Brazil, with land survey and planning. 2000 Evaluating the predictive performance of habitat models developed using logistic regression 132 Work Experience 2005 Interpretation and audit in the PRODES (Amazonian Forest Monitoring by Satellite) program J. E. Taylor, "Factors Causing Variation in Reflectance Measurements from Bracken in Eastern Australia", Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 217-229, 1993. [28]. G. A. Blackburn, C. M. Steele, "Towards the Remote Sensing of Matorral Vegetation Physiology: Relationships between Spectral Reflectance, Pigment, and Biophysical Characteristics of Semiarid Bushland Canopies", Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 70, no. 3,pp. 278-292, 1999. 1993 Factors Causing Variation in Reflectance Measurements from Bracken in Eastern AustraliaTowards the Remote Sensing of Matorral Vegetation Physiology: Relationships between Spectral Reflectance, Pigment, and Biophysical Characteristics of Semiarid Bushland Canopies Lopes, P.M.O.; Silva, B.S.G.; Bottino, M.J.; Valeriano, D.M. Irradiância solar incidente modelada a partir de dados do sensor MODIS. In: Rudorff, B.F.T.; Shimabukuro, Y.E.; Ceballos. J.C. (Eds.). O Sensor MODIS e suas aplicações ambientais no Brasil. 1 ed. São José dos Campos: Bookimage, 2006, p. 1-448. 145 Selected publications on events: 2006 Irradiância solar incidente modelada a partir de dados do sensor MODIS O Sensor MODIS e suas aplicações ambientais no Brasil . D. Göttlicher, A. Obregón, J. Homeier, R. Rollenbeck, T. Nauss, J. Bendix, "Land-cover classification in the Andes of southern Ecuador using Landsat ETM+ data as a basis for SVAT modelling", Int. J. of Remote Sensing, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1867-1886, 2009. 2009 Land-cover classification in the Andes of southern Ecuador using Landsat ETM+ data as a basis for SVAT modelling Language skills Language skills . J. S. Aber, " Lighter-than-Air Platforms for Small-Format Aerial Photography " , Trans. of the Kansas Academy of Sci., vol. 107, no. 1/2, pp. 39-44, 2004. 2004 Lighter-than-Air Platforms for Small-Format Aerial Photography . K. C. Swain and, H. P. W. Jayasuriya, "Low Altitude Remote Sensing applications for diversified farming conditions in developing countries: an overview", Asia-Pacific J. of Rural Develop., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 81-98, 2008. 2008 Low Altitude Remote Sensing applications for diversified farming conditions in developing countries: an overview Master thesis: Master thesis Silva, B. and Bendix J. 2011. Modelling and monitoring of vegetation growth from leaf to plot scale. Proceedings 3rd iLEAPS Science Conference, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 20. Sep 2011. ESA Special Publications SP-688. 2011-09 Modelling and monitoring of vegetation growth from leaf to plot scale German, English, and Spanish (native Portuguese speaker) Personal Bibliography Peer-reviewed publications: native Portuguese speaker) Personal Bibliography Peer-reviewed publications Silva, B.S.G. Permanent Plot Selection in Mountainous Ecosystems (translation of " Seleção de Parcelas Permanentes em Ecossistemas Montanhosos " . M. Permanent Plot Selection in Mountainous Ecosystems (translation of " Seleção de Parcelas Permanentes em Ecossistemas Montanhosos J. S. Aber, I. Marzolff, J. B. Ries, Small-Format Aerial Photography. Amsterdam: Elsevier Sci., 2010, pp. 85–87. 2010 Ries, Small-Format Aerial Photography Silva, B. et al. 2008. Some aspects of climate and radiation into a grassland competition model, AKKlima Symposium, Nov. 2008, Aachen, Germany Silva, B. S. G.; Valeriano, D. M.; Correção atmosférica e topográfica de imagens de satélite em terrenos montanhosos. Proceedings. XII Simp. Brasileiro de Sensoriamento Remoto, 2005, INPE, p. 3587-3594. 2005 Some aspects of climate and radiation into a grassland competition model, AKKlima Symposium Correção atmosférica e topográfica de imagens de satélite em terrenos montanhosos Sc. Thesis on Remote Sensing. Publication of INPE, National Institute for Spatial Research ) São José dos Campos, Brazil. Book chapter: Thesis on Remote Sensing. Publication of INPE, National Institute for Spatial Research ) São José dos Campos D. Wundram, J. Löffler, "High-resolution spatial analysis of mountain landscapes using a low-altitude remote sensing approach", Int. J. of Remote Sensing, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 961-974, 2008. [11]. M. Miyamoto, K. Yoshino, T. Nagano, T. Ishida, Y. Sato, "Use of balloon aerial photography for classification of Kushiro wetland vegetation, northeastern Japan", Wetlands, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 701-710, 2004. [12]. R. M. Llovería, F. P-C., A. García-Martín, J. R. Fernández, "Combined Methodology Based on Field Spectrometry and Digital Photography for Estimating Fire Severity", IEEE Journal of selected topics in applied earth observations and remote sensing, vol. 1, no. 4, pp.226-274, 2008 [13]. F. Artigas, I. C. Pechman, "Balloon imagery verification of remotely sensed Phragmites australis expansion in an urban estuary of New Jersey, USA", Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 105- 112, 2010. 2004 Use of balloon aerial photography for classification of Kushiro wetland vegetation, northeastern JapanCombined Methodology Based on Field Spectrometry and Digital Photography for Estimating Fire SeverityBalloon imagery verification of remotely sensed Phragmites australis expansion in an urban estuary of http://dx.doi.org/10.17192/z2013.0089 On the growth performance of two competing species in an Andean pasture of southern Ecuador - monitoring and simulations Der Bergregenwald in den südöstlichen Anden von Ecuador mit seiner außergewöhnlich hohen Artenvielfalt und seinen wichtigen Ökosystemleistungen ist stark bedroht. Dies ist vor allem eine Folge von Klimaerwärmung und Landnutzungsänderungen. Auf Weideflächen erweist sich das landesübliche Abbrennen als nicht nachhaltige Pflegemaßnahme. Abbrennen begünstigt die Verbreitung von für die Weidewirtschaft kontraproduktiven Pflanzenarten. Dies führt zum Verlassen der stark verunkrauteten Weideflächen und zur weiteren Abholzung von natürlichen Waldgebieten. Bislang waren keine quantitativen Angaben über das Wachstumspotenzial der in Südecuador vorkommenden Nutzpflanzen und deren Konkurrenten unter lokalen Umweltbedingungen verfügbar. Damit fehlten wissenschaftliche Grundlagen zur Entwicklung Strategien, welche nachhaltige Weidewirtschaft und Waldschutz gleichzeitig ermöglichen. Daher war Ziel dieser Arbeit die Untersuchung des Wachstumspotenzials zwei konkurrierenden Pflanzenarten - der südliche Adlerfarn (Pteridium arachnoideum) und das Weidegras (Setaria sphacelata) - unter aktuellen und zukünftigen klimatischen Bedingungen. Die Ergebnisse sind Erkenntnisse und methodische Entwicklungen zu der bisher wissenschaftlich unerforschten Verunkrautung von Weideflächen durch den Adlerfarn in Südecuador. Im Rahmen der Arbeit wurde das Southern Bracken Competition Model (SoBraCoMo) entwickelt, auf die zu untersuchenden Pflanzenarten parametrisiert und validiert. Der Quellcode des Modells basiert auf state-of-the-art SVAT- (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) und Vegetationsdynamik-Modellen. Verschiedene Feldmessungen und die Erhebung von meteorologischen Daten liefern neue standort- und pflanzenartspezifische Parameter für eine realitätsnahe Simulation. Zur Beobachtung des Wachstums nach Bränden und zur Erhebung meteorologischer Daten wurde ein experimentelles Untersuchungsgebiet eingerichtet. Um unter anderen artspezifischen Bodenbedeckungen zu erkunden, konnte ein Monitoringsystem mit Installation von Standard- und Infrarotkameras an einem Heliumballon entwickelt und eingesetzt werden. Die Ergebnisse weisen für aktuelle Klimawerte und ungestörte lokale Bedingungen (keine Beweidung / Trampeln, keine Beschattung) eine geringfügig höhere Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Weidegrases aus. Es wird gezeigt, dass sich dieser Wachstumsvorteil bei einer weiteren Klimaerwärmung noch erhöhen würde. Da Feldbeobachtungen dennoch auf eine Verdrängung des Weidegrases hindeuten, müssen andere Faktoren für den Erfolg des Adlerfarns verantwortlich sein. Wahrscheinlichster Faktor hierfür ist die Beweidung selbst. Diese beeinträchtigt das Weidegras stärker als den Adlerfarn. Das Modell SoBraCoMo kann als hervorragende Grundlage für zukünftige wissenschaftliche Arbeiten auf diesem Gebiet eingesetzt werden. opus:4750 2013 2013-03-12 2013-03-12 Wachstumspotential von zwei konkurrierenden Arten auf einer Weidefläche in den Anden Süd-Ecuadors 2013-02-13 The megadiverse tropical mountain forests in the southeastern Andes of Ecuador, including their biodiversity and ecosystem services, are severely threatened due to climate warming and the clearing of forests to produce pasture land. The common local practice of recurrent burning for pasture rejuvenation has proven to be non-sustainable, since it enables bracken fern to invade pastures, causing farmers to abandon heavily infested pastures and instead clear new tracts of natural forest. No quantitative information on the growth potential of pasture grass and bracken fern under current and future environmental conditions has yet been available for the Andes of Ecuador. The scientific basis required to understand bracken invasion has yet to be established. This scientific basis would enable the development of sustainable pasture management strategies. Such strategies would, in turn, help protect the remnants of natural forest. Consequently, the present work aims at investigating the growth potential of two competing species under current and future climate conditions. Outcomes provide new knowledge and methodological developments concerning pasture invasion by bracken fern in southern Ecuador. The method entails the development of a new model, the Southern Bracken Competition Model (SoBraCoMo), realistically parameterized and validated. The model code is based on existing Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) and vegetation dynamic models to calculate the potential growth of two main competitors, the southern bracken fern (Pteridium arachnoideum) and the pasture grass (Setaria sphacelata). Extensive field measurements and proper meteorological forcing delivered new site and species-specific parameters for realistic productivity simulations of both species. An experimental site was established to observe pasture and bracken fern development under the practice of recurrent burning, and to provide atmospheric data for a realistic forcing of the developed model. A novel balloon-borne monitoring system was developed to detect species cover and provided new insights into post-fire canopy recovery. The main results demonstrate that, under current environmental conditions, Setaria has a slightly higher competitive growth potential under undisturbed conditions (no grazing, trampling, or light competition). Furthermore, this growth advantage of Setaria should most likely increase due to global warming. Because field observations show bracken infestation, however, other factors than those investigated should be responsible for the bracken fern’s current success. The most likely cause of bracken success to be investigated in the future is cattle browsing; although browsing continuously removes aboveground biomass, this disruption of the upper soil does not affect deep roots and rhizomes of bracken plants. The newly developed SoBraCoMo can now provide an excellent basis to implement new mechanisms like browsing for future simulations. Silva, Brenner Stefan Gomes Silva Brenner Stefan Gomes ths Prof. Dr. Bendix Jörg Bendix, Jörg (Prof. Dr.) Philipps-Universität Marburg
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