Compression, Modeling, and Real-Time Rendering of Realistic Materials and Objects
The realism of a scene basically depends on the quality of the geometry, the illumination and the materials that are used. Whereas many sources for the creation of three-dimensional geometry exist and numerous algorithms for the approximation of global illumination were presented, the acquisition...
Graphik, Multimedia, Programmierung
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|Summary:||The realism of a scene basically depends on the quality of the geometry, the illumination and the materials that are used. Whereas many sources for the creation of three-dimensional geometry exist and numerous algorithms for the approximation of global illumination were presented, the acquisition and rendering of realistic materials remains a challenging problem. Realistic materials are very important in computer graphics, because they describe the reflectance properties of surfaces, which are based on the interaction of light and matter. In the real world, an enormous diversity of materials can be found, comprising very different properties. One important objective in computer graphics is to understand these processes, to formalize them and to finally simulate them. For this purpose various analytical models do already exist, but their parameterization remains difficult as the number of parameters is usually very high. Also, they fail for very complex materials that occur in the real world. Measured materials, on the other hand, are prone to long acquisition time and to huge input data size. Although very efficient statistical compression algorithms were presented, most of them do not allow for editability, such as altering the diffuse color or mesostructure. In this thesis, a material representation is introduced that makes it possible to edit these features. This makes it possible to re-use the acquisition results in order to easily and quickly create deviations of the original material. These deviations may be subtle, but also substantial, allowing for a wide spectrum of material appearances. The approach presented in this thesis is not based on compression, but on a decomposition of the surface into several materials with different reflection properties. Based on a microfacette model, the light-matter interaction is represented by a function that can be stored in an ordinary two-dimensional texture. Additionally, depth information, local rotations, and the diffuse color are stored in these textures. As a result of the decomposition, some of the original information is inevitably lost, therefore an algorithm for the efficient simulation of subsurface scattering is presented as well. Another contribution of this work is a novel perception-based simplification metric that includes the material of an object. This metric comprises features of the human visual system, for example trichromatic color perception or reduced resolution. The proposed metric allows for a more aggressive simplification in regions where geometric metrics do not simplify|