Bedeutung der AV-und VV Optimierung bei biventrikulären Schrittmachersystemen

Bei Patienten mit fortgeschrittener und therapierefraktärer chronischer Herzinsuffizienz eröffnete sich mit der Einführung der biventrikulären Stimulation die kardiale Resynchronisationstherapie als ein neuer viel versprechender therapeutischer Ansatz und wurde in die Behandlungsrichtlinien aufgenom...

Ausführliche Beschreibung

Gespeichert in:
1. Verfasser: Jahnecke, Marcus
Beteiligte: Lauer, Bernward (Prof. Dr.) (BetreuerIn (Doktorarbeit))
Format: Dissertation
Sprache:Deutsch
Veröffentlicht: Philipps-Universität Marburg 2010
Medizin
Schlagworte:
CRT
HZV
Online Zugang:PDF-Volltext
Tags: Tag hinzufügen
Keine Tags, Fügen Sie den ersten Tag hinzu!
title Bedeutung der AV-und VV Optimierung bei biventrikulären Schrittmachersystemen
spellingShingle Bedeutung der AV-und VV Optimierung bei biventrikulären Schrittmachersystemen
Medizin, Gesundheit
AV-and VV Times
Kardiale Resynchronisationstherapie
CRT
Millarkatheter
CRT
AV-und VV-Zeiten
HZV
Linksventrikuläre Anstiegsgeschwindigkeit
Jahnecke, Marcus
in patients with advanced and refractory chronic heart failure initiated with the introduction of biventricular pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy as a promising new therapeutic approach and was inducted into the treatment guidelines. The modern therapeutic devices now offer the ability to carry out an individual biventricular pacing with different temporal activation of the left and right ventricles (VV interval) and the time intervals between the atria and ventricles (AV interval) within the so-called sequential biventricular pacing. The acute hemodynamic effects of sequential CRT, as well as any changes over time were examined in the context of this work. The noninvasive measurement of left ventricular maximum rate of rise was found), both after one months (+ 12.1% and after four months (+ 3.33%) an increase in simultaneous biventricular pacing as an expression of increased inotropy. Then carried out an optimization of AV and VV time showed in the 1 months control, a further increase of dp / dt, at 6.11% compared to simultaneous biventricular pacing. This effect of optimization could be detected even after 4 months, this resulted in an increase in the rate of rise to 6.99% by optimizing to the simultaneous stimulation. Over time could be achieved by re-optimization of biventricular system, an increase of left ventricular rate of rise of 4.1% over the originally optimized programming.
title_short Bedeutung der AV-und VV Optimierung bei biventrikulären Schrittmachersystemen
title_full Bedeutung der AV-und VV Optimierung bei biventrikulären Schrittmachersystemen
title_fullStr Bedeutung der AV-und VV Optimierung bei biventrikulären Schrittmachersystemen
title_full_unstemmed Bedeutung der AV-und VV Optimierung bei biventrikulären Schrittmachersystemen
title_sort Bedeutung der AV-und VV Optimierung bei biventrikulären Schrittmachersystemen
publishDate 2010
era_facet 2010
last_indexed 2011-08-10T23:59:59Z
oai_set_str_mv ddc:610
open_access
doc-type:doctoralThesis
xMetaDissPlus
dewey-raw 610
dewey-search 610
genre Medical sciences, Medicine
genre_facet Medical sciences, Medicine
topic_facet Medizin, Gesundheit
topic Medizin, Gesundheit
AV-and VV Times
Kardiale Resynchronisationstherapie
CRT
Millarkatheter
CRT
AV-und VV-Zeiten
HZV
Linksventrikuläre Anstiegsgeschwindigkeit
license_str http://archiv.ub.uni-marburg.de/adm/urhg.html
institution Medizin
building Medizin
first_indexed 2010-03-15T00:00:00Z
author2 Lauer, Bernward (Prof. Dr.)
author2_role ths
author Jahnecke, Marcus
publisher Philipps-Universität Marburg
format Dissertation
url http://archiv.ub.uni-marburg.de/diss/z2010/0177/pdf/dmj.pdf
contents in patients with advanced and refractory chronic heart failure initiated with the introduction of biventricular pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy as a promising new therapeutic approach and was inducted into the treatment guidelines. The modern therapeutic devices now offer the ability to carry out an individual biventricular pacing with different temporal activation of the left and right ventricles (VV interval) and the time intervals between the atria and ventricles (AV interval) within the so-called sequential biventricular pacing. The acute hemodynamic effects of sequential CRT, as well as any changes over time were examined in the context of this work. The noninvasive measurement of left ventricular maximum rate of rise was found), both after one months (+ 12.1% and after four months (+ 3.33%) an increase in simultaneous biventricular pacing as an expression of increased inotropy. Then carried out an optimization of AV and VV time showed in the 1 months control, a further increase of dp / dt, at 6.11% compared to simultaneous biventricular pacing. This effect of optimization could be detected even after 4 months, this resulted in an increase in the rate of rise to 6.99% by optimizing to the simultaneous stimulation. Over time could be achieved by re-optimization of biventricular system, an increase of left ventricular rate of rise of 4.1% over the originally optimized programming.
ref_str_mv references
description Bei Patienten mit fortgeschrittener und therapierefraktärer chronischer Herzinsuffizienz eröffnete sich mit der Einführung der biventrikulären Stimulation die kardiale Resynchronisationstherapie als ein neuer viel versprechender therapeutischer Ansatz und wurde in die Behandlungsrichtlinien aufgenommen. Die modernen Therapiedevices bieten mittlerweile die Möglichkeit eine individuelle biventrikuläre Stimulation mit unterschiedlicher zeitlicher Aktivierung des Linken und rechten Ventrikel (VV-Intervall) und der Zeitintervalle zwischen Vorhöfen und Ventrikel (AV Intervall) im Rahmen der sogenannten sequentiellen biventrikulären Stimulation durchzuführen. Die akuten hämodynamischen Auswirkungen der sequentiellen CRT, aber auch eventuelle Änderungen im zeitlichen Verlauf wurden im Rahmen dieser Arbeit untersucht. Die invasive Messung der linksventrikulären maximalen Anstiegsgeschwindigkeit ergab sowohl nach einem Monat (+ 12,1%) als auch nach vier Monaten (+ 3,33 %) eine Zunahme unter simultaner biventrikulärer Stimulation als Ausdruck der gesteigerten Inotropie. Erfolgte dann eine Optimierung der AV und VV Zeiten zeigte sich in der 1 Monatskontrolle eine weitere Zunahme von dp/dt um 6,11 % gegenüber der simultanen biventrikulären Stimulation. Dieser Effekt der Optimierung ließ sich auch nach 4 Monaten nachweisen, hier ergab sich eine Zunahme der Anstiegsgeschwindigkeit um 6,99 % durch eine Optimierung gegenüber der simultanen Stimulation. Im zeitlichen Verlauf konnte durch eine erneute Optimierung des biventrikulären Systems eine Zunahme der linksventrikulären Anstiegsgeschwindigkeit von 4,1% gegenüber der ursprünglich optimierten Programmierung erzielt werden.
language German
title_alt Importance of AV and VV optimization during biventricular pacing systems
thumbnail http://archiv.ub.uni-marburg.de/diss/z2010/0177/cover.png
spelling diss/z2010/0177 Bedeutung der AV-und VV Optimierung bei biventrikulären Schrittmachersystemen 2010 2011-08-10 2010-02-10 2010-03-15 urn:nbn:de:hebis:04-z2010-01771 opus:2653 in patients with advanced and refractory chronic heart failure initiated with the introduction of biventricular pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy as a promising new therapeutic approach and was inducted into the treatment guidelines. The modern therapeutic devices now offer the ability to carry out an individual biventricular pacing with different temporal activation of the left and right ventricles (VV interval) and the time intervals between the atria and ventricles (AV interval) within the so-called sequential biventricular pacing. The acute hemodynamic effects of sequential CRT, as well as any changes over time were examined in the context of this work. The noninvasive measurement of left ventricular maximum rate of rise was found), both after one months (+ 12.1% and after four months (+ 3.33%) an increase in simultaneous biventricular pacing as an expression of increased inotropy. Then carried out an optimization of AV and VV time showed in the 1 months control, a further increase of dp / dt, at 6.11% compared to simultaneous biventricular pacing. This effect of optimization could be detected even after 4 months, this resulted in an increase in the rate of rise to 6.99% by optimizing to the simultaneous stimulation. Over time could be achieved by re-optimization of biventricular system, an increase of left ventricular rate of rise of 4.1% over the originally optimized programming. Nelson, G. S. et al. "Predictors of systolic augmentation from left ventricular preexcitation in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and intraventricular conduction delay." Circulation 101.23 (2000): 2703-09. 2000 Predictors of systolic augmentation from left ventricular preexcitation in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and intraventricular conduction delay Leclercq, C. and D. A. Kass. "Retiming the failing heart: principles and current clinical status of cardiac resynchronization." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 39.2 (2002): 194-201. 2002 Retiming the failing heart: principles and current clinical status of cardiac resynchronization Pitt, B. et al. "Effect of losartan compared with captopril on mortality in patients with symptomatic heart failure: randomised trial--the Losartan Heart Failure Survival Study ELITE II." Lancet 355.9215 (2000): 1582-87. 2000 Effect of losartan compared with captopril on mortality in patients with symptomatic heart failure: randomised trial--the Losartan Heart Failure Survival Study ELITE II Whinnett, Z. I. et al. "Determination of optimal atrioventricular delay for cardiac resynchronization therapy using acute non-invasive blood pressure." Europace. 8.5 (2006): 358- 66. 2006 Determination of optimal atrioventricular delay for cardiac resynchronization therapy using acute non-invasive blood pressure Whinnett, Z. I. et al. "Haemodynamic effects of changes in atrioventricular and interventricular delay in cardiac resynchronisation therapy show a consistent pattern: analysis of shape, magnitude and relative importance of atrioventricular and interventricular delay." Heart 92.11 (2006): 1628-34. 2006 Haemodynamic effects of changes in atrioventricular and interventricular delay in cardiac resynchronisation therapy show a consistent pattern: analysis of shape, magnitude and relative importance of atrioventricular and interventricular delay Linde, C. et al. "Long-term benefits of biventricular pacing in congestive heart failure: results from the MUltisite STimulation in cardiomyopathy (MUSTIC) study." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 40.1 (2002): 111-18. 2002 Long-term benefits of biventricular pacing in congestive heart failure: results from the MUltisite STimulation in cardiomyopathy (MUSTIC) study Cazeau, S. et al. "Effects of multisite biventricular pacing in patients with heart failure and intraventricular conduction delay." N.Engl.J.Med. 344.12 (2001): 873-80. 2001 Effects of multisite biventricular pacing in patients with heart failure and intraventricular conduction delay Bhatta, L. et al. "Complications of biventricular pacing." Curr.Opin.Cardiol. 19.1 (2004): 31-35. 2004 Complications of biventricular pacing Butter, C. et al. "Effect of resynchronization therapy stimulation site on the systolic function of heart failure patients." Circulation 104.25 (2001): 3026-29. 2001 Effect of resynchronization therapy stimulation site on the systolic function of heart failure patients Cowie, M. R. et al. "Incidence and aetiology of heart failure; a population-based study." Eur.Heart J. 20.6 (1999): 421-28. 1999 Incidence and aetiology of heart failure; a population-based study Braunwald, E. "The Denolin lecture. Congestive heart failure: a half century perspective." Eur.Heart J. 22.10 (2001): 825-36. 2001 The Denolin lecture Congestive heart failure: a half century perspective Leclercq, C. et al. "Comparative effects of permanent biventricular and right-univentricular pacing in heart failure patients with chronic atrial fibrillation." Eur.Heart J. 23.22 (2002): 1780- 87. 2002 Comparative effects of permanent biventricular and right-univentricular pacing in heart failure patients with chronic atrial fibrillation Ritter, P. et al. "Determination of the optimal atrioventricular delay in DDD pacing. Comparison between echo and peak endocardial acceleration measurements." Europace. 1.2 (1999): 126-30. 1999 Determination of the optimal atrioventricular delay in DDD pacing. Comparison between echo and peak endocardial acceleration measurements Sack, S. et al. "Stimulation of the left ventricle through the coronary sinus with a newly developed 'over the wire' lead system--early experiences with lead handling and positioning." Europace. 3.4 (2001): 317-23. 2001 Stimulation of the left ventricle through the coronary sinus with a newly developed 'over the wire' lead system--early experiences with lead handling and positioning Krum, H. "The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure: full text (update 2005)." Eur.Heart J. 26.22 (2005): 2472-74. 2005 The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure: full text Braun, M. U. et al. "Impedance cardiography as a noninvasive technique for atrioventricular interval optimization in cardiac resynchronization therapy." J.Interv.Card Electrophysiol. 13.3 (2005): 223-29. 2005 Impedance cardiography as a noninvasive technique for atrioventricular interval optimization in cardiac resynchronization therapy van Gelder, B. M. et al. "Effect of optimizing the VV interval on left ventricular contractility in cardiac resynchronization therapy." Am.J.Cardiol. 93.12 (2004): 1500-03. 2004 Effect of optimizing the VV interval on left ventricular contractility in cardiac resynchronization therapy Dec, G. W. and V. Fuster. "Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy." N.Engl.J.Med. 331.23 (1994): 1564-75. 1994 Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy Bardy, G. H. et al. "Amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for congestive heart failure." N.Engl.J.Med. 352.3 (2005): 225-37. 2005 Amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for congestive heart failure Channer, K. S. et al. "Combination diuretic treatment in severe heart failure: a randomised controlled trial." Br.Heart J. 71.2 (1994): 146-50. 1994 Combination diuretic treatment in severe heart failure: a randomised controlled trial Seibold, A. et al. "Cloning of the human type-2 vasopressin receptor gene." Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 689 (1993): 570-72. 1993 Cloning of the human type-2 vasopressin receptor gene Cowburn, P. J. et al. "Endothelin B receptors are functionally important in mediating vasoconstriction in the systemic circulation in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 33.4 (1999): 932-38. 1999 Endothelin B receptors are functionally important in mediating vasoconstriction in the systemic circulation in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction McMurray, J. J. et al. "Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced left-ventricular systolic function taking angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: the CHARM- Added trial." Lancet 362.9386 (2003): 767-71. 2003 Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced left-ventricular systolic function taking angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: the CHARM- Added trial Cowie, M. R. et al. "The epidemiology of heart failure." Eur.Heart J. 18.2 (1997): 208-25. 1997 The epidemiology of heart failure Burri, H. and R. Lerch. "Echocardiography and patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy: a critical appraisal." Heart Rhythm. 3.4 (2006): 474-79. 2006 Echocardiography and patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy: a critical appraisal Waagstein, F. et al. "Beneficial effects of metoprolol in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Beneficial effects of metoprolol in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy Silvet, H. et al. "Prognostic implications of increased QRS duration in patients with moderate and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction." Am.J.Cardiol. 88.2 (2001): 182-5, A6. 2001 Prognostic implications of increased QRS duration in patients with moderate and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction Vanderheyden, M. et al. "Tailored echocardiographic interventricular delay programming further optimizes left ventricular performance after cardiac resynchronization therapy." Heart Rhythm. 2.10 (2005): 1066-72. 2005 Tailored echocardiographic interventricular delay programming further optimizes left ventricular performance after cardiac resynchronization therapy Jacquet, L. et al. "Successful bridge to retransplantation with the wearable Novacor left ventricular assist system." J.Heart Lung Transplant. 15.6 (1996): 620-22. 1996 Successful bridge to retransplantation with the wearable Novacor left ventricular assist system Rousseau, M. F. et al. "Progression of left ventricular dysfunction secondary to coronary artery disease, sustained neurohormonal activation and effects of ibopamine therapy during long-term therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor." Am.J.Cardiol. 73.7 (1994): 488-93. 1994 Progression of left ventricular dysfunction secondary to coronary artery disease, sustained neurohormonal activation and effects of ibopamine therapy during long-term therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor Bordachar, P. et al. "Echocardiographic parameters of ventricular dyssynchrony validation in patients with heart failure using sequential biventricular pacing." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 44.11 (2004): 2157-65. 2004 Echocardiographic parameters of ventricular dyssynchrony validation in patients with heart failure using sequential biventricular pacing Tse, H. F. et al. "Impedance cardiography for atrioventricular interval optimization during permanent left ventricular pacing." Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. 26.1 Pt 2 (2003): 189-91. 2003 Impedance cardiography for atrioventricular interval optimization during permanent left ventricular pacing Tse, H. F. et al. "The incremental benefit of rate-adaptive pacing on exercise performance during cardiac resynchronization therapy." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 46.12 (2005): 2292-97. 2005 The incremental benefit of rate-adaptive pacing on exercise performance during cardiac resynchronization therapy Cheitlin, M. D. et al. "ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Clinical Application of Echocardiography. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Clinical Application of Echocardiography). Developed in collaboration with the American Society of Echocardiography." Circulation 95.6 (1997): 1686- 744. 1997 ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Clinical Application of Echocardiography. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Clinical Application of Echocardiography) Developed in collaboration with the American Society of Echocardiography Cohn, J. N. et al. "A comparison of enalapril with hydralazine-isosorbide dinitrate in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure." N.Engl.J.Med. 325.5 (1991): 303-10. 1991 A comparison of enalapril with hydralazine-isosorbide dinitrate in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure Breithardt, O. A. et al. "Acute effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on functional mitral regurgitation in advanced systolic heart failure." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 41.5 (2003): 765-70. 2003 Acute effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on functional mitral regurgitation in advanced systolic heart failure Mann, D. L. et al. "Adrenergic effects on the biology of the adult mammalian cardiocyte." Circulation 85.2 (1992): 790-804. 1992 Adrenergic effects on the biology of the adult mammalian cardiocyte Meluzin, J. et al. "A fast and simple echocardiographic method of determination of the optimal atrioventricular delay in patients after biventricular stimulation." Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. 27.1 (2004): 58-64. 2004 A fast and simple echocardiographic method of determination of the optimal atrioventricular delay in patients after biventricular stimulation Strickberger, S. A. et al. "Amiodarone versus implantable cardioverter-defibrillator:randomized trial in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and asymptomatic nonsustained ventricular tachycardia--AMIOVIRT." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 41.10 (2003): 1707-12. 2003 Amiodarone versus implantable cardioverter-defibrillator:randomized trial in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and asymptomatic nonsustained ventricular tachycardia--AMIOVIRT Brown, N. J. and D. E. Vaughan. "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors." Circulation 97.14 (1998): 1411-20. 1998 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors Phillips, P. A. et al. "Angiotensin II-induced thirst and vasopressin release in man." Clin.Sci.(Lond) 68.6 (1985): 669-74. 1985 Angiotensin II-induced thirst and vasopressin release in man Kromer, E. P. "[Angiotensin-II-receptor antagonists for cardiac insufficiency]." Internist (Berl) 41.9 (2000): 917-24. 2000 Angiotensin-II-receptor antagonists for cardiac insufficiency] Teerlink, J. R., S. Z. Goldhaber, and M. A. Pfeffer. "An overview of contemporary etiologies of congestive heart failure." Am.Heart J. 121.6 Pt 1 (1991): 1852-53. 1991 An overview of contemporary etiologies of congestive heart failure Da Costa, A. et al. "Antibiotic prophylaxis for permanent pacemaker implantation: a meta- analysis." Circulation 97.18 (1998): 1796-801. 1998 Antibiotic prophylaxis for permanent pacemaker implantation: a metaanalysis De Martino, G. et al. "A randomized comparison of alternative techniques to achieve coronary sinus cannulation during biventricular implantation procedures." J.Interv.Card Electrophysiol. 10.3 (2004): 227-30. 2004 A randomized comparison of alternative techniques to achieve coronary sinus cannulation during biventricular implantation procedures Cohn, J. N. and G. Tognoni. "A randomized trial of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan in chronic heart failure." N.Engl.J.Med. 345.23 (2001): 1667-75. 2001 A randomized trial of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan in chronic heart failure Mason, D. T. et al. "Assessment of cardiac contractility. The relation between the rate of pressure rise and ventricular pressure during isovolumic systole." Circulation 44.1 (1971): 47- 58. 1971 Assessment of cardiac contractility. The relation between the rate of pressure rise and ventricular pressure during isovolumic systole Saito, Y. et al. "Atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) in human ventricle. Increased gene expression of ANP in dilated cardiomyopathy." Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 148.1 (1987): 211-17. 1987 Atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) in human ventricle Increased gene expression of ANP in dilated cardiomyopathy Morales, M. A. et al. "Atrioventricular delay optimization by doppler-derived left ventricular dP/dt improves 6-month outcome of resynchronized patients." Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. 29.6 (2006): 564-68. 2006 Atrioventricular delay optimization by doppler-derived left ventricular dP/dt improves 6-month outcome of resynchronized patients Tsutamoto, T. et al. "Attenuation of compensation of endogenous cardiac natriuretic peptide system in chronic heart failure: prognostic role of plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration in patients with chronic symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction." Circulation 96.2 (1997): 509- 16. 1997 Attenuation of compensation of endogenous cardiac natriuretic peptide system in chronic heart failure: prognostic role of plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration in patients with chronic symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction Cury, P. M. et al. "Autopsy findings in early and late postoperative death after partial left ventriculectomy." Ann.Thorac.Surg. 69.3 (2000): 769-73. 2000 Autopsy findings in early and late postoperative death after partial left ventriculectomy Gasparini, M. et al. "Beneficial effects of biventricular pacing in patients with a "narrow" QRS." Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. 26.1 Pt 2 (2003): 169-74. 2003 Beneficial effects of biventricular pacing in patients with a "narrow" QRS Brater, D. C. "Benefits and risks of torasemide in congestive heart failure and essential hypertension." Drug Saf 14.2 (1996): 104-20. 1996 Benefits and risks of torasemide in congestive heart failure and essential hypertension Yahalom, J., H. O. Klein, and E. Kaplinsky. "Beta-adrenergic blockade as adjunctive oral therapy in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation." Chest 71.5 (1977): 592-96. 1977 Beta-adrenergic blockade as adjunctive oral therapy in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation Exner, D. V. et al. "Beta-adrenergic blocking agent use and mortality in patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a post hoc analysis of the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 33.4 (1999): 916-23. 1999 Beta-adrenergic blocking agent use and mortality in patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a post hoc analysis of the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction Hamdan, M. H. et al. "Biventricular pacing decreases sympathetic activity compared with right ventricular pacing in patients with depressed ejection fraction." Circulation 102.9 (2000): 1027- Collaboration With the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation; Endorsed by the Heart Failure Society of America." Circulation 104.24 (2001): 2996-3007. 2000 Biventricular pacing decreases sympathetic activity compared with right ventricular pacing in patients with depressed ejection fraction 1027- Collaboration With the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation; Endorsed by the Heart Failure Society of America Bakker, P. F. et al. "Biventricular pacing in end-stage heart failure improves functional capacity and left ventricular function." J.Interv.Card Electrophysiol. 4.2 (2000): 395-404. 2000 Biventricular pacing in end-stage heart failure improves functional capacity and left ventricular function Cohn, J. N., R. Ferrari, and N. Sharpe. "Cardiac remodeling--concepts and clinical implications: a consensus paper from an international forum on cardiac remodeling. Behalf of an International Forum on Cardiac Remodeling." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 35.3 (2000): 569-82. 2000 Cardiac remodeling--concepts and clinical implications: a consensus paper from an international forum on cardiac remodeling. Behalf of an International Forum on Cardiac Remodeling Bax, J. J. et al. "Cardiac resynchronization therapy: Part 2--issues during and after device implantation and unresolved questions." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 46.12 (2005): 2168-82. 2005 Cardiac resynchronization therapy: Part 2--issues during and after device implantation and unresolved questions Leon, A. R. et al. "Cardiac resynchronization with sequential biventricular pacing for the treatment of moderate-to-severe heart failure." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 46.12 (2005): 2298-304. 2005 Cardiac resynchronization with sequential biventricular pacing for the treatment of moderate-to-severe heart failure Yokoyama, T. et al. "Cellular basis for the negative inotropic effects of tumor necrosis factor- alpha in the adult mammalian heart." J.Clin.Invest 92.5 (1993): 2303-12. 1993 Cellular basis for the negative inotropic effects of tumor necrosis factoralpha in the adult mammalian heart Bristow, M. R. "Changes in myocardial and vascular receptors in heart failure." Changes in myocardial and vascular receptors in heart failure Di Lenarda, A. et al. "Changing mortality in dilated cardiomyopathy. The Heart Muscle Disease Study Group." Br.Heart J. 72.6 Suppl (1994): S46-S51. 1994 Changing mortality in dilated cardiomyopathy. The Heart Muscle Disease Study Group Barjon, J. N. et al. "Chronic renal and neurohumoral effects of the calcium entry blocker nisoldipine in patients with congestive heart failure." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 9.3 (1987): 622-30. 1987 Chronic renal and neurohumoral effects of the calcium entry blocker nisoldipine in patients with congestive heart failure Testa, M. et al. "Circulating levels of cytokines and their endogenous modulators in patients with mild to severe congestive heart failure due to coronary artery disease or hypertension." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 28.4 (1996): 964-71. 1996 Circulating levels of cytokines and their endogenous modulators in patients with mild to severe congestive heart failure due to coronary artery disease or hypertension Wilson, J. R., J. Groves, and G. Rayos. "Circulatory status and response to cardiac rehabilitation in patients with heart failure." Circulation 94.7 (1996): 1567-72. 1996 Circulatory status and response to cardiac rehabilitation in patients with heart failure Bocchi, E. A. et al. "Clinical outcome after left ventricular surgical remodeling in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy referred for heart transplantation: short-term results." Circulation 96.9 Suppl (1997): II-71. 1997 Clinical outcome after left ventricular surgical remodeling in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy referred for heart transplantation: short-term results Reuter, S. et al. "Comparison of characteristics in responders versus nonresponders with biventricular pacing for drug-resistant congestive heart failure." Am.J.Cardiol. 89.3 (2002): 346- 50. 2002 Comparison of characteristics in responders versus nonresponders with biventricular pacing for drug-resistant congestive heart failure De Maria, R. et al. "Comparison of clinical findings in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in women versus men. The Italian Multicenter Cardiomyopathy Study Group (SPIC)." Am.J.Cardiol. 72.7 (1993): 580-85. 1993 Comparison of clinical findings in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in women versus men. The Italian Multicenter Cardiomyopathy Study Group (SPIC) Delfino, J. G. et al. "Comparison of myocardial velocities obtained with magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping and tissue Doppler imaging in normal subjects and patients with left ventricular dyssynchrony." J.Magn Reson.Imaging 24.2 (2006): 304-11. 2006 Comparison of myocardial velocities obtained with magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping and tissue Doppler imaging in normal subjects and patients with left ventricular dyssynchrony Molhoek, S. G. et al. "Comparison of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with sinus rhythm versus chronic atrial fibrillation." Am.J.Cardiol. 94.12 (2004): 1506-09. 2004 Comparison of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with sinus rhythm versus chronic atrial fibrillation Kiviniemi, M. S. et al. "Complications related to permanent pacemaker therapy." Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. 22.5 (1999): 711-20. 1999 Complications related to permanent pacemaker therapy Waggoner, A. D. "Congestive heart failure and the role of two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography: a primer for cardiac sonographers." J.Am.Soc.Echocardiogr. 13.2 (2000): 157-63. 2000 Congestive heart failure and the role of two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography: a primer for cardiac sonographers Remme, W. J. "Congestive heart failure--pathophysiology and medical treatment." Congestive heart failure--pathophysiology and medical treatment Coats, A. J. et al. "Controlled trial of physical training in chronic heart failure. Exercise performance, hemodynamics, ventilation, and autonomic function." Circulation 85.6 (1992): 2119-31. 1992 Controlled trial of physical training in chronic heart failure. Exercise performance, hemodynamics, ventilation, and autonomic function Chu, S. H. and R. B. Hsu. "Current status of artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices." J.Formos.Med.Assoc. 99.2 (2000): 79-85. 2000 Current status of artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices Panidis, I. P. et al. "Diastolic mitral regurgitation in patients with atrioventricular conduction abnormalities: a common finding by Doppler echocardiography." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 7.4 (1986): 768-74. 1986 Diastolic mitral regurgitation in patients with atrioventricular conduction abnormalities: a common finding by Doppler echocardiography Goldstein, R. E. et al. "Diltiazem increases late-onset congestive heart failure in postinfarction patients with early reduction in ejection fraction. The Adverse Experience Committee; and the Multicenter Diltiazem Postinfarction Research Group." Circulation 83.1 (1991): 52-60. 1991 Diltiazem increases late-onset congestive heart failure in postinfarction patients with early reduction in ejection fraction. The Adverse Experience Committee; and the Multicenter Diltiazem Postinfarction Research Group Richardson, A. et al. "Double-blind comparison of captopril alone against frusemide plus amiloride in mild heart failure." Lancet 2.8561 (1987): 709-11. 1987 Double-blind comparison of captopril alone against frusemide plus amiloride in mild heart failure Gold, M. R. et al. "Dual-chamber pacing with a short atrioventricular delay in congestive heart failure: a randomized study." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 26.4 (1995): 967-73. 1995 Dual-chamber pacing with a short atrioventricular delay in congestive heart failure: a randomized study Durchschnittliche Ergebnisse der linksventrikulären Anstiegsgeschwindigkeit mittels Millar Katheter Messung 21 Durchschnittliche Ergebnisse der linksventrikulären Anstiegsgeschwindigkeit mittels Millar Katheter Messung 21 Bordachar, P. et al. "Echocardiographic assessment during exercise of heart failure patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy." Am.J.Cardiol. 97.11 (2006): 1622-25. 2006 Echocardiographic assessment during exercise of heart failure patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy Bax, J. J. et al. "Echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac resynchronization therapy: ready for routine clinical use? A critical appraisal." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 44.1 (2004): 1-9. 2004 Echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac resynchronization therapy: ready for routine clinical use? A critical appraisal Porciani, M. C. et al. "Echocardiographic examination of atrioventricular and interventricular delay optimization in cardiac resynchronization therapy." Am.J.Cardiol. 95.9 (2005): 1108-10. 2005 Echocardiographic examination of atrioventricular and interventricular delay optimization in cardiac resynchronization therapy Cazeau, S. et al. "Echocardiographic modeling of cardiac dyssynchrony before and during multisite stimulation: a prospective study." Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. 26.1 Pt 2 (2003): 137- 43. 2003 Echocardiographic modeling of cardiac dyssynchrony before and during multisite stimulation: a prospective study Takeshita, A., L. L. Basta, and J. M. Kioschos. "Effect of intermittent left bundle branch block on left ventricular performance." Am.J.Med. 56.2 (1974): 251-55. 1974 Effect of intermittent left bundle branch block on left ventricular performance Bramlet, D. A. et al. "Effect of rate-dependent left bundle branch block on global and regional left ventricular function." Circulation 67.5 (1983): 1059-65. 1983 Effect of rate-dependent left bundle branch block on global and regional left ventricular function Cohn, J. N. et al. "Effect of the calcium antagonist felodipine as supplementary vasodilator therapy in patients with chronic heart failure treated with enalapril: V-HeFT III. Vasodilator- Heart Failure Trial (V-HeFT) Study Group." Circulation 96.3 (1997): 856-63. 1997 Effect of the calcium antagonist felodipine as supplementary vasodilator therapy in patients with chronic heart failure treated with enalapril: V-HeFT III. Vasodilator- Heart Failure Trial (V-HeFT) Study Group Cohn, J. N. et al. "Effect of vasodilator therapy on mortality in chronic congestive heart failure. Results of a Veterans Administration Cooperative Study." N.Engl.J.Med. 314.24 (1986): 1547- 52. 1986 Effect of vasodilator therapy on mortality in chronic congestive heart failure. Results of a Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Reisin, E. et al. "Effect of weight loss without salt restriction on the reduction of blood pressure in overweight hypertensive patients." N.Engl.J.Med. 298.1 (1978): 1-6. 1978 Effect of weight loss without salt restriction on the reduction of blood pressure in overweight hypertensive patients Coats, A. J. et al. "Effects of physical training in chronic heart failure." Lancet 335.8681 (1990): 63-66. 1990 Effects of physical training in chronic heart failure Dattilo, A. M. and P. M. Kris-Etherton. "Effects of weight reduction on blood lipids and lipoproteins: a meta-analysis." Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 56.2 (1992): 320-28. 1992 Effects of weight reduction on blood lipids and lipoproteins: a meta-analysis Pennington, D. G. et al. "Eight years' experience with bridging to cardiac transplantation." J.Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg. 107.2 (1994): 472-80. 1994 Eight years' experience with bridging to cardiac transplantation Lawo, T. et al. "Electrical signals applied during the absolute refractory period: an investigational treatment for advanced heart failure in patients with normal QRS duration." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 46.12 (2005): 2229-36. 2005 Electrical signals applied during the absolute refractory period: an investigational treatment for advanced heart failure in patients with normal QRS duration Wyndham, C. R. et al. "Epicardial activation in patients with left bundle branch block." Circulation 61.4 (1980): 696-703. 1980 Epicardial activation in patients with left bundle branch block Sharpe, N. and R. Doughty. "Epidemiology of heart failure and ventricular dysfunction." Lancet 352 Suppl 1 (1998): SI3-SI7. 1998 Epidemiology of heart failure and ventricular dysfunction Pitt, B. et al. "Eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction." N.Engl.J.Med. 348.14 (2003): 1309-21. 2003 Eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction Blanc, J. J. et al. "Evaluation of different ventricular pacing sites in patients with severe heart failure: results of an acute hemodynamic study." Circulation 96.10 (1997): 3273-77. 1997 Evaluation of different ventricular pacing sites in patients with severe heart failure: results of an acute hemodynamic study Etienne, Y. et al. "Evaluation of left ventricular based pacing in patients with congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation." Am.J.Cardiol. 83.7 (1999): 1138-40, A9. 1999 Evaluation of left ventricular based pacing in patients with congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation Schoeller, R. et al. "First-or second-degree atrioventricular block as a risk factor in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy." Am.J.Cardiol. 71.8 (1993): 720-26. 1993 First-or second-degree atrioventricular block as a risk factor in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy Minden, H. H. et al. "[From guiding catheter to coronary sinus lead]." Herzschrittmacherther.Elektrophysiol. 17 Suppl 1 (2006): I7-13. 2006 [From guiding catheter to coronary sinus lead] Grines, C. L. et al. "Functional abnormalities in isolated left bundle branch block. The effect of interventricular asynchrony." Circulation 79.4 (1989): 845-53. 1989 Functional abnormalities in isolated left bundle branch block. The effect of interventricular asynchrony Gehstrecke bei der Baseline und 4 Monatsuntersuchung 18 Gehstrecke bei der Baseline und 4 Monatsuntersuchung 18 Ein besonderer Dank gilt meiner Kollegin Frau Dr. Große und allen Schwestern der Schrittmacherambulanz und des Herzkatheterlabors der Zentralklinik Bad Berka für die freundliche Unterstützung und die nie endende Geduld bei der Betreuung der Patienten, sowie beim der Akquirieren der umfangreichen Daten. Große und allen Schwestern der Schrittmacherambulanz und des Herzkatheterlabors der Zentralklinik Bad Berka für die freundliche Unterstützung und die nie endende Geduld bei der Betreuung der Patienten Lemke, B., B. Nowak, and D. Pfeiffer. "[Guidelines for heart pacemaker therapy]." Z.Kardiol. 94.10 (2005): 704-20. 2005 Guidelines for heart pacemaker therapy Swedberg, K. et al. "Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure: executive summary (update 2005): The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology." Eur.Heart J. 26.11 (2005): 1115-40. 2005 Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure: executive summary (update 2005): The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology Psaty, B. M. et al. "Health outcomes associated with various antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents: a network meta-analysis." JAMA 289.19 (2003): 2534-44. 2003 Health outcomes associated with various antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents: a network meta-analysis Jessup, M. and S. Brozena. "Heart failure." N.Engl.J.Med. 348.20 (2003): 2007-18. 2003 Heart failure Heart Failure Study Group. The Guidant Congestive Heart Failure Research Group." Circulation 99.23 (1999): 2993-3001. 1999 Heart Failure Study Group. The Guidant Congestive Heart Failure Research Group Senni, M. and M. M. Redfield. "Heart failure with preserved systolic function. A different natural history?" J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 38.5 (2001): 1277-82. 2001 Heart failure with preserved systolic function. A different natural history Kapadia, S. R. et al. "Hemodynamic regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene and protein expression in adult feline myocardium." Circ.Res. 81.2 (1997): 187-95. 1997 Hemodynamic regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene and protein expression in adult feline myocardium Gorcsan, J., III et al. "Heterogeneous immediate effects of partial left ventriculectomy on cardiac performance." Circulation 97.9 (1998): 839-42. 1998 Heterogeneous immediate effects of partial left ventriculectomy on cardiac performance Schrier, R. W. and W. T. Abraham. "Hormones and hemodynamics in heart failure." N.Engl.J.Med. 341.8 (1999): 577-85. 1999 Hormones and hemodynamics in heart failure Meldrum, D. R. et al. "Hydrogen peroxide induces tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated cardiac injury by a P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism." Surgery 124.2 (1998): 291-96. 1998 Hydrogen peroxide induces tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated cardiac injury by a P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism Sheldon, R. et al. "Identification of patients most likely to benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy: the Canadian Implantable Defibrillator Study." Circulation 101.14 (2000): 1660-64. 2000 Identification of patients most likely to benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy: the Canadian Implantable Defibrillator Study Desai, A. S. et al. "Implantable defibrillators for the prevention of mortality in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials." JAMA 292.23 (2004): 2874-79. 2004 Implantable defibrillators for the prevention of mortality in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Kass, D. A. et al. "Improved left ventricular mechanics from acute VDD pacing in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and ventricular conduction delay." Circulation 99.12 (1999): 1567-73. 1999 Improved left ventricular mechanics from acute VDD pacing in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and ventricular conduction delay Dunkman, W. B. et al. "Incidence of thromboembolic events in congestive heart failure. The V- HeFT VA Cooperative Studies Group." Circulation 87.6 Suppl (1993): VI94-101. 1993 Incidence of thromboembolic events in congestive heart failure. The V- HeFT VA Cooperative Studies Group Lipchenca, I. et al. "Inhibition of biventricular pacemakers by oversensing of far-field atrial depolarization." Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. 25.3 (2002): 365-67. 2002 Inhibition of biventricular pacemakers by oversensing of far-field atrial depolarization Kuhlkamp, V. "Initial experience with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator incorporating cardiac resynchronization therapy." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 39.5 (2002): 790-97. 2002 Initial experience with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator incorporating cardiac resynchronization therapy Colucci, W. S. et al. "Intravenous nesiritide, a natriuretic peptide, in the treatment of decompensated congestive heart failure. Nesiritide Study Group." N.Engl.J.Med. 343.4 (2000): 246-53. 2000 Intravenous nesiritide, a natriuretic peptide, in the treatment of decompensated congestive heart failure. Nesiritide Study Group Gheorghiade, M. and R. O. Bonow. "Introduction and overview: beta-blocker therapy in the management of chronic heart failure." Am.J.Med. 110 Suppl 7A (2001): 1S-5S. 2001 Introduction and overview: beta-blocker therapy in the management of chronic heart failure Kurzidim, K. et al. "Invasive optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy: role of sequential biventricular and left ventricular pacing." Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. 28.8 (2005): 754-61. 2005 Invasive optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy: role of sequential biventricular and left ventricular pacing Meisel, E. et al. "Investigation of coronary venous anatomy by retrograde venography in patients with malignant ventricular tachycardia." Circulation 104.4 (2001): 442-47. 2001 Investigation of coronary venous anatomy by retrograde venography in patients with malignant ventricular tachycardia Gasparini, M. et al. "Is the outcome of cardiac resynchronization therapy related to the underlying etiology?" Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. 26.1 Pt 2 (2003): 175-80. 2003 Is the outcome of cardiac resynchronization therapy related to the underlying etiology? Baldasseroni, S. et al. "Left bundle-branch block is associated with increased 1-year sudden and total mortality rate in 5517 outpatients with congestive heart failure: a report from the Italian network on congestive heart failure." Am.Heart J. 143.3 (2002): 398-405. 2002 Left bundle-branch block is associated with increased 1-year sudden and total mortality rate in 5517 outpatients with congestive heart failure: a report from the Italian network on congestive heart failure Nelson, G. S. et al. "Left ventricular or biventricular pacing improves cardiac function at diminished energy cost in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and left bundle-branch block." Circulation 102.25 (2000): 3053-59. 2000 Left ventricular or biventricular pacing improves cardiac function at diminished energy cost in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and left bundle-branch block Lloyd-Jones, D. M. et al. "Lifetime risk for developing congestive heart failure: the Framingham Heart Study." Circulation 106.24 (2002): 3068-72. 2002 Lifetime risk for developing congestive heart failure: the Framingham Heart Study el Banayosy, A. et al. "Long-term mechanical circulatory support." Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg. 45.3 (1997): 127-30. 1997 Long-term mechanical circulatory support Furnary, A. P. et al. "Long-term outcome, survival analysis, and risk stratification of dynamic cardiomyoplasty." J.Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg. 112.6 (1996): 1640-49. 1996 Long-term outcome, survival analysis, and risk stratification of dynamic cardiomyoplasty Levy, D. et al. "Long-term trends in the incidence of and survival with heart failure." N.Engl.J.Med. 347.18 (2002): 1397-402. 2002 Long-term trends in the incidence of and survival with heart failure O'Donnell, D. et al. "Long-term variations in optimal programming of cardiac resynchronization therapy devices." Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. 28 Suppl 1 (2005): S24-S26. 2005 Long-term variations in optimal programming of cardiac resynchronization therapy devices Gosselink, A. T. et al. "Low-dose amiodarone for maintenance of sinus rhythm after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation or flutter." JAMA 267.24 (1992): 3289-93. 1992 Low-dose amiodarone for maintenance of sinus rhythm after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation or flutter Belardinelli, R. et al. "Low intensity exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 26.4 (1995): 975-82. 1995 Low intensity exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure Baker, D. W. and R. F. Wright. "Management of heart failure. IV. Anticoagulation for patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction." JAMA 272.20 (1994): 1614-18. 1994 Management of heart failure. IV. Anticoagulation for patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction Cho, G. Y. et al. "Mechanical dyssynchrony assessed by tissue Doppler imaging is a powerful predictor of mortality in congestive heart failure with normal QRS duration." Mechanical dyssynchrony assessed by tissue Doppler imaging is a powerful predictor of mortality in congestive heart failure with normal QRS duration Nishimura, R. A. et al. "Mechanism of hemodynamic improvement by dual-chamber pacing for severe left ventricular dysfunction: an acute Doppler and catheterization hemodynamic study." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 25.2 (1995): 281-88. 1995 Mechanism of hemodynamic improvement by dual-chamber pacing for severe left ventricular dysfunction: an acute Doppler and catheterization hemodynamic study Metoprolol in Dilated Cardiomyopathy (MDC) Trial Study Group." Lancet 342.8885 (1993): 1441-46. 1993 Metoprolol in Dilated Cardiomyopathy (MDC) Trial Study Group Pehrsson, S. K. "Multicentre comparison between slow-release furosemide and bendroflumethiazide in congestive heart failure." Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 28.3 (1985): 235-39. 1985 Multicentre comparison between slow-release furosemide and bendroflumethiazide in congestive heart failure Cazeau, S. et al. "Multisite pacing for end-stage heart failure: early experience." Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. 19.11 Pt 2 (1996): 1748-57. 1996 Multisite pacing for end-stage heart failure: early experience Unger, T. "Neurohormonal modulation in cardiovascular disease." Am.Heart J. 139.1 Pt 2 (2000): S2-S8. 2000 Neurohormonal modulation in cardiovascular disease Lee, W., R. Rokey, and D. B. Cotton. "Noninvasive maternal stroke volume and cardiac output determinations by pulsed Doppler echocardiography." Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 158.3 Pt 1 (1988): 505-10. 1988 Noninvasive maternal stroke volume and cardiac output determinations by pulsed Doppler echocardiography Burri, H. et al. "Optimization of device programming for cardiac resynchronization therapy." Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. 29.12 (2006): 1416-25. 2006 Optimization of device programming for cardiac resynchronization therapy Kindermann, M. et al. "Optimizing the AV delay in DDD pacemaker patients with high degree AV block: mitral valve Doppler versus impedance cardiography." Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. Optimizing the AV delay in DDD pacemaker patients with high degree AV block: mitral valve Doppler versus impedance cardiography Patterson, J. H. et al. "Oral torsemide in patients with chronic congestive heart failure: effects on body weight, edema, and electrolyte excretion. Torsemide Investigators Group." Pharmacotherapy 14.5 (1994): 514-21. 1994 Oral torsemide in patients with chronic congestive heart failure: effects on body weight, edema, and electrolyte excretion. Torsemide Investigators Group Vardas, P. E. "Pacing follow up techniques and trouble shooting during biventricular pacing." J.Interv.Card Electrophysiol. 9.2 (2003): 183-87. 2003 Pacing follow up techniques and trouble shooting during biventricular pacing De Nicola, L. et al. "Pathophysiological role and diuretic efficacy of atrial natriuretic peptide in renal patients." J.Am.Soc.Nephrol. 8.3 (1997): 445-55. 1997 Pathophysiological role and diuretic efficacy of atrial natriuretic peptide in renal patients Weil, J. and H. Schunkert. "[Pathophysiology of chronic heart failure.]." Clin.Res.Cardiol. 95 Pathophysiology of chronic heart failure Strickberger, S. A. et al. "Patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy: from the Council on Clinical Cardiology Subcommittee on Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group, in collaboration with the Heart Rhythm Society." Circulation 111.16 (2005): 2146-50. 2005 Patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy: from the Council on Clinical Cardiology Subcommittee on Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group, in collaboration with the Heart Rhythm Society Sharma, A. D. et al. "Percent right ventricular pacing predicts outcomes in the DAVID trial." Heart Rhythm. 2.8 (2005): 830-34. 2005 Percent right ventricular pacing predicts outcomes in the DAVID trial Daubert, J. C. et al. "Permanent left ventricular pacing with transvenous leads inserted into the coronary veins." Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. 21.1 Pt 2 (1998): 239-45. 1998 Permanent left ventricular pacing with transvenous leads inserted into the coronary veins Hambrecht, R. et al. "Physical training in patients with stable chronic heart failure: effects on cardiorespiratory fitness and ultrastructural abnormalities of leg muscles." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 25.6 (1995): 1239-49. 1995 Physical training in patients with stable chronic heart failure: effects on cardiorespiratory fitness and ultrastructural abnormalities of leg muscles Sherman, L. G. et al. "Piretanide, a potent diuretic with potassium-sparing properties, for the treatment of congestive heart failure." Clin.Pharmacol.Ther. 40.5 (1986): 587-94. 1986 Piretanide, a potent diuretic with potassium-sparing properties, for the treatment of congestive heart failure Cody, R. J. et al. "Plasma endothelin correlates with the extent of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic congestive heart failure." Circulation 85.2 (1992): 504-09. 1992 Plasma endothelin correlates with the extent of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic congestive heart failure McMurray, J. J. et al. "Plasma endothelin in chronic heart failure." Circulation 85.4 (1992): 1374-79. 1992 Plasma endothelin in chronic heart failure Francis, G. S. et al. "Plasma norepinephrine, plasma renin activity, and congestive heart failure. Relations to survival and the effects of therapy in V-HeFT II. The V-HeFT VA Cooperative Studies Group." Circulation 87.6 Suppl (1993): VI40-VI48. 1993 Plasma norepinephrine, plasma renin activity, and congestive heart failure. Relations to survival and the effects of therapy in V-HeFT II. The V-HeFT VA Cooperative Studies Group Stellbrink, C. et al. "[Policy paper to the cardiac re-sychronization therapy]." Z.Kardiol. 92.1 (2003): 96-103. 2003 [Policy paper to the cardiac re-sychronization therapy] Bittner, V. et al. "Prediction of mortality and morbidity with a 6-minute walk test in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. SOLVD Investigators." JAMA 270.14 (1993): 1702-07. 1993 Prediction of mortality and morbidity with a 6-minute walk test in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. SOLVD Investigators Bansch, D. et al. "Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: the Cardiomyopathy Trial (CAT)." Circulation 105.12 (2002): 1453-58. 2002 Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: the Cardiomyopathy Trial (CAT) Teichholz, L. E. et al. "Problems in echocardiographic volume determinations: echocardiographic-angiographic correlations in the presence of absence of asynergy." Am.J.Cardiol. 37.1 (1976): 7-11. 1976 Problems in echocardiographic volume determinations: echocardiographic-angiographic correlations in the presence of absence of asynergy Pacher, R. et al. "Prognostic impact of big endothelin-1 plasma concentrations compared with invasive hemodynamic evaluation in severe heart failure." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 27.3 (1996): 633- 41. 1996 Prognostic impact of big endothelin-1 plasma concentrations compared with invasive hemodynamic evaluation in severe heart failure Lee, W. H. and M. Packer. "Prognostic importance of serum sodium concentration and its modification by converting-enzyme inhibition in patients with severe chronic heart failure." Circulation 73.2 (1986): 257-67. 1986 Prognostic importance of serum sodium concentration and its modification by converting-enzyme inhibition in patients with severe chronic heart failure Gurevitz, O. et al. "Programmable multiple pacing configurations help to overcome high left ventricular pacing thresholds and avoid phrenic nerve stimulation." Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. 28.12 (2005): 1255-59. 2005 Programmable multiple pacing configurations help to overcome high left ventricular pacing thresholds and avoid phrenic nerve stimulation Torre-Amione, G. et al. "Proinflammatory cytokine levels in patients with depressed left ventricular ejection fraction: a report from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD)." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 27.5 (1996): 1201-06. 1996 Proinflammatory cytokine levels in patients with depressed left ventricular ejection fraction: a report from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) Kadish, A. et al. "Prophylactic defibrillator implantation in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy." N.Engl.J.Med. 350.21 (2004): 2151-58. 2004 Prophylactic defibrillator implantation in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy Kerlan, J. E. et al. "Prospective comparison of echocardiographic atrioventricular delay optimization methods for cardiac resynchronization therapy." Heart Rhythm. 3.2 (2006): 148- 54. 2006 Prospective comparison of echocardiographic atrioventricular delay optimization methods for cardiac resynchronization therapy Szatalowicz, V. L. et al. "Radioimmunoassay of plasma arginine vasopressin in hyponatremic patients with congestive heart failure." N.Engl.J.Med. 305.5 (1981): 263-66. 1981 Radioimmunoassay of plasma arginine vasopressin in hyponatremic patients with congestive heart failure Pitt, B. et al. "Randomised trial of losartan versus captopril in patients over 65 with heart failure (Evaluation of Losartan in the Elderly Study, ELITE)." Lancet 349.9054 (1997): 747-52. 1997 Randomised trial of losartan versus captopril in patients over 65 with heart failure (Evaluation of Losartan in the Elderly Study, ELITE) Sawhney, N. S. et al. "Randomized prospective trial of atrioventricular delay programming for cardiac resynchronization therapy." Heart Rhythm. 1.5 (2004): 562-67. 2004 Randomized prospective trial of atrioventricular delay programming for cardiac resynchronization therapy Sahn, D. J. et al. "Recommendations regarding quantitation in M-mode echocardiography: results of a survey of echocardiographic measurements." Circulation 58.6 (1978): 1072-83. 1978 Recommendations regarding quantitation in M-mode echocardiography: results of a survey of echocardiographic measurements Sarter, B. H. and F. E. Marchlinski. "Redefining the role of digoxin in the treatment of atrial fibrillation." Am.J.Cardiol. 69.18 (1992): 71G-8G. 1992 Redefining the role of digoxin in the treatment of atrial fibrillation Hystad, M. E. et al. "Regional cardiac expression and concentration of natriuretic peptides in patients with severe chronic heart failure." Acta Physiol Scand. 171.4 (2001): 395-403. 2001 Regional cardiac expression and concentration of natriuretic peptides in patients with severe chronic heart failure Hambrecht, R. et al. "Regular physical exercise corrects endothelial dysfunction and improves exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure." Circulation 98.24 (1998): 2709-15. 1998 Regular physical exercise corrects endothelial dysfunction and improves exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure Prinzen, F. W. and M. Peschar. "Relation between the pacing induced sequence of activation and left ventricular pump function in animals." Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. 25.4 Pt 1 (2002): 484-98. 2002 Relation between the pacing induced sequence of activation and left ventricular pump function in animals Rosenqvist, M. et al. "Relative importance of activation sequence compared to atrioventricular synchrony in left ventricular function." Am.J.Cardiol. 67.2 (1991): 148-56. 1991 Relative importance of activation sequence compared to atrioventricular synchrony in left ventricular function Etoch, S. W. et al. "Results after partial left ventriculectomy versus heart transplantation for idiopathic cardiomyopathy." J.Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg. 117.5 (1999): 952-59. 1999 Results after partial left ventriculectomy versus heart transplantation for idiopathic cardiomyopathy Williams, E. S. and J. M. Miller. "Results from late-breaking clinical trial sessions at the American College of Cardiology 51st Annual Scientific Session." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 40.1 (2002): 1-18. 2002 Results from late-breaking clinical trial sessions at the American College of Cardiology 51st Annual Scientific Session Kannel, W. B. et al. "Role of blood pressure in the development of congestive heart failure. The Framingham study." N.Engl.J.Med. 287.16 (1972): 781-87. 1972 Role of blood pressure in the development of congestive heart failure. The Framingham study Marcus, G. M. et al. "Septal to posterior wall motion delay fails to predict reverse remodeling or clinical improvement in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy." Septal to posterior wall motion delay fails to predict reverse remodeling or clinical improvement in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy Perego, G. B. et al. "Simultaneous vs. sequential biventricular pacing in dilated cardiomyopathy: an acute hemodynamic study." Eur.J.Heart Fail. 5.3 (2003): 305-13. 2003 Simultaneous vs. sequential biventricular pacing in dilated cardiomyopathy: an acute hemodynamic study Korfer, R. et al. "Single-center experience with the thoratec ventricular assist device." J.Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg. 119.3 (2000): 596-600. 2000 Single-center experience with the thoratec ventricular assist device Morales, D. L. et al. "Six-year experience of caring for forty-four patients with a left ventricular assist device at home: safe, economical, necessary." J.Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg. 119.2 (2000): 251-59. 2000 Six-year experience of caring for forty-four patients with a left ventricular assist device at home: safe, economical, necessary Vermeulen, A. and D. R. Chadha. "Slow-release furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide in congestive cardiac failure: a controlled trial." J.Clin.Pharmacol. 22.11-12 (1982): 513-19. 1982 Slow-release furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide in congestive cardiac failure: a controlled trial Stockburger, M. "[Strategies to avoid complications and to solve technical problems during the implantation of CRT and CRT-D systems]." Herzschrittmacherther.Elektrophysiol. 17 Suppl 1 (2006): I20-I27. 2006 [Strategies to avoid complications and to solve technical problems during the implantation of CRT and CRT-D systems Pullicino, P. M., J. L. Halperin, and J. L. Thompson. "Stroke in patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction." Neurology 54.2 (2000): 288-94. 2000 Stroke in patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction GLEASON, W. L. and E. BRAUNWALD. "Studies on the first derivative of the ventricular pressure pulse in man." J.Clin.Invest 41 (1962): 80-91. 1962 Studies on the first derivative of the ventricular pressure pulse in man McAlister, F. A. et al. "Systematic review: cardiac resynchronization in patients with symptomatic heart failure." Ann.Intern.Med. 141.5 (2004): 381-90. 2004 Systematic review: cardiac resynchronization in patients with symptomatic heart failure Curtis, J. P. et al. "The association of left ventricular ejection fraction, mortality, and cause of death in stable outpatients with heart failure." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 42.4 (2003): 736-42. 2003 The association of left ventricular ejection fraction, mortality, and cause of death in stable outpatients with heart failure Cleland, J. G. et al. "The effect of cardiac resynchronization on morbidity and mortality in heart failure." N.Engl.J.Med. 352.15 (2005): 1539-49. 2005 The effect of cardiac resynchronization on morbidity and mortality in heart failure Packer, M. et al. "The effect of carvedilol on morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. U.S. Carvedilol Heart Failure Study Group." N.Engl.J.Med. 334.21 (1996): 1349- 55. 1996 The effect of carvedilol on morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. U.S. Carvedilol Heart Failure Study Group Pitt, B. et al. "The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators." N.Engl.J.Med. 341.10 (1999): 709-17. 1999 The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators Massie, B. M. and N. B. Shah. "The heart failure epidemic: magnitude of the problem and potential mitigating approaches." Curr.Opin.Cardiol. 11.3 (1996): 221-26. 1996 The heart failure epidemic: magnitude of the problem and potential mitigating approaches Mair, J., A. Hammerer-Lercher, and B. Puschendorf. "The impact of cardiac natriuretic peptide determination on the diagnosis and management of heart failure." Clin.Chem.Lab Med. 39.7 (2001): 571-88. 2001 The impact of cardiac natriuretic peptide determination on the diagnosis and management of heart failure McKee, P. A. et al. "The natural history of congestive heart failure: the Framingham study." N.Engl.J.Med. 285.26 (1971): 1441-46. 1971 The natural history of congestive heart failure: the Framingham study Gandhi, S. K. et al. " The pathogenesis of acute pulmonary edema associated with hypertension." N.Engl.J.Med. 344.1 (2001): 17-22. 2001 The pathogenesis of acute pulmonary edema associated with hypertension de Lemos, J. A. et al. "The prognostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with acute coronary syndromes." N.Engl.J.Med. 345.14 (2001): 1014-21. 2001 The prognostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with acute coronary syndromes Nilsson, L. B. et al. "Thermodilution cardiac output--are three injections enough?" Acta Anaesthesiol.Scand. 48.10 (2004): 1322-27. 2004 Thermodilution cardiac output--are three injections enough? Gyatt G.H., Thomson P.J, and Sullivan P.J. " The-six-minute walk : A new measure of exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. : , ; ." Can.med.Assoc J. 132 (1985): 919-23. 1985 The-six-minute walk : A new measure of exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure Rihal, C. S. et al. "The utility of clinical, electrocardiographic, and roentgenographic variables in the prediction of left ventricular function." Am.J.Cardiol. 75.4 (1995): 220-23. 1995 The utility of clinical, electrocardiographic, and roentgenographic variables in the prediction of left ventricular function Yu, C. M. et al. "Tissue Doppler echocardiographic evidence of reverse remodeling and improved synchronicity by simultaneously delaying regional contraction after biventricular pacing therapy in heart failure." Circulation 105.4 (2002): 438-45. 2002 Tissue Doppler echocardiographic evidence of reverse remodeling and improved synchronicity by simultaneously delaying regional contraction after biventricular pacing therapy in heart failure Macdonald, P. S. et al. "Tolerability and efficacy of carvedilol in patients with New York Heart Association class IV heart failure." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 33.4 (1999): 924-31. 1999 Tolerability and efficacy of carvedilol in patients with New York Heart Association class IV heart failure Roger, V. L. et al. "Trends in heart failure incidence and survival in a community-based population." JAMA 292.3 (2004): 344-50. 2004 Trends in heart failure incidence and survival in a community-based population Gurevitch, J. et al. "Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is released from the isolated heart undergoing ischemia and reperfusion." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 28.1 (1996): 247-52. 1996 Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is released from the isolated heart undergoing ischemia and reperfusion Eichenholz, P. W. et al. "Tumor necrosis factor challenges in canines: patterns of cardiovascular dysfunction." Am.J.Physiol 263.3 Pt 2 (1992): H668-H675. 1992 Tumor necrosis factor challenges in canines: patterns of cardiovascular dysfunction Meldrum, D. R. "Tumor necrosis factor in the heart." Am.J.Physiol 274.3 Pt 2 (1998): R577- R595. 1998 Tumor necrosis factor in the heart Habib, F. M. et al. "Tumour necrosis factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase in dilated cardiomyopathy." Lancet 347.9009 (1996): 1151-55. 1996 Tumour necrosis factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase in dilated cardiomyopathy Feigenbaum, H. et al. "Ultrasound measurements of the left ventricle. A correlative study with angiocardiography." Arch.Intern.Med. 129.3 (1972): 461-67. 1972 Ultrasound measurements of the left ventricle. A correlative study with angiocardiography Breithardt, O. A. et al. "Echocardiographic quantification of left ventricular asynchrony predicts an acute hemodynamic benefit of cardiac resynchronization therapy." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 40.3 (2002): 536-45. 2002 Echocardiographic quantification of left ventricular asynchrony predicts an acute hemodynamic benefit of cardiac resynchronization therapy Mussivand, T. "Mechanical circulatory devices for the treatment of heart failure." J.Card Surg. 14.3 (1999): 218-28. 1999 Mechanical circulatory devices for the treatment of heart failure Mortensen, P. T. et al. "Sequential biventricular pacing: evaluation of safety and efficacy." Pacing Clin.Electrophysiol. 27.3 (2004): 339-45. 2004 Sequential biventricular pacing: evaluation of safety and efficacy Sogaard, P. et al. "Sequential versus simultaneous biventricular resynchronization for severe heart failure: evaluation by tissue Doppler imaging." Circulation 106.16 (2002): 2078-84. 2002 Sequential versus simultaneous biventricular resynchronization for severe heart failure: evaluation by tissue Doppler imaging Jansen, A. H. et al. "Correlation of echo-Doppler optimization of atrioventricular delay in cardiac resynchronization therapy with invasive hemodynamics in patients with heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy." Am.J.Cardiol. 97.4 (2006): 552- 57. 2006 Correlation of echo-Doppler optimization of atrioventricular delay in cardiac resynchronization therapy with invasive hemodynamics in patients with heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy Enright, P. L. and D. L. Sherrill. "Reference equations for the six-minute walk in healthy adults." Am.J.Respir.Crit Care Med. 158.5 Pt 1 (1998): 1384-87. 1998 Reference equations for the six-minute walk in healthy adults Puri, S. et al. "Increased alveolar/capillary membrane resistance to gas transfer in patients with chronic heart failure." Br.Heart J. 72.2 (1994): 140-44. 1994 Increased alveolar/capillary membrane resistance to gas transfer in patients with chronic heart failure Kannel, W. B., K. Ho, and T. Thom. "Changing epidemiological features of cardiac failure." Br.Heart J. 72.2 Suppl (1994): S3-S9. 1994 Changing epidemiological features of cardiac failure Lipkin, D. P. et al. "Factors determining symptoms in heart failure: comparison of fast and slow exercise tests." Br.Heart J. 55.5 (1986): 439-45. 1986 Factors determining symptoms in heart failure: comparison of fast and slow exercise tests Ramanathan, C. et al. "Activation and repolarization of the normal human heart under complete physiological conditions." Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 103.16 (2006): 6309-14. 2006 Activation and repolarization of the normal human heart under complete physiological conditions Gorenberg, M., A. Marmor, and H. Rotstein. "Detection of chest pain of non-cardiac origin at the emergency room by a new non-invasive device avoiding unnecessary admission to hospital." Emerg.Med.J. 22.7 (2005): 486-89. 2005 Detection of chest pain of non-cardiac origin at the emergency room by a new non-invasive device avoiding unnecessary admission to hospital McMurray, J. J. and S. Stewart. "Epidemiology, aetiology, and prognosis of heart failure." Heart 83.5 (2000): 596-602. 2000 Epidemiology, aetiology, and prognosis of heart failure Sonne-Holm, S. et al. "Independent effects of weight change and attained body weight on prevalence of arterial hypertension in obese and non-obese men." BMJ 299.6702 (1989): 767- 70. 1989 Independent effects of weight change and attained body weight on prevalence of arterial hypertension in obese and non-obese men Conway, N. "Haemodynamics effects of ethyl alcohol in coronary heart disease." Br.Heart J. 76 (2005): 581-82. 2005 Haemodynamics effects of ethyl alcohol in coronary heart disease Moss, A. J. et al. "Prophylactic implantation of a defibrillator in patients with myocardial infarction and reduced ejection fraction." N.Engl.J.Med. 346.12 (2002): 877-83. 2002 Prophylactic implantation of a defibrillator in patients with myocardial infarction and reduced ejection fraction Boriani, G. et al. "Randomized comparison of simultaneous biventricular stimulation versus optimized interventricular delay in cardiac resynchronization therapy. The Resynchronization for the HemodYnamic Treatment for Heart Failure Management II implantable cardioverter defibrillator (RHYTHM II ICD) study." Am.Heart J. 151.5 (2006): 1050-58. 2006 Randomized comparison of simultaneous biventricular stimulation versus optimized interventricular delay in cardiac resynchronization therapy. The Resynchronization for the HemodYnamic Treatment for Heart Failure Management II implantable cardioverter defibrillator (RHYTHM II ICD) study Auricchio, A. et al. "Long-term clinical effect of hemodynamically optimized cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with heart failure and ventricular conduction delay." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 39.12 (2002): 2026-33. 2002 Long-term clinical effect of hemodynamically optimized cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with heart failure and ventricular conduction delay Bei Patienten mit fortgeschrittener und therapierefraktärer chronischer Herzinsuffizienz eröffnete sich mit der Einführung der biventrikulären Stimulation die kardiale Resynchronisationstherapie als ein neuer viel versprechender therapeutischer Ansatz und wurde in die Behandlungsrichtlinien aufgenommen. Die modernen Therapiedevices bieten mittlerweile die Möglichkeit eine individuelle biventrikuläre Stimulation mit unterschiedlicher zeitlicher Aktivierung des Linken und rechten Ventrikel (VV-Intervall) und der Zeitintervalle zwischen Vorhöfen und Ventrikel (AV Intervall) im Rahmen der sogenannten sequentiellen biventrikulären Stimulation durchzuführen. Die akuten hämodynamischen Auswirkungen der sequentiellen CRT, aber auch eventuelle Änderungen im zeitlichen Verlauf wurden im Rahmen dieser Arbeit untersucht. Die invasive Messung der linksventrikulären maximalen Anstiegsgeschwindigkeit ergab sowohl nach einem Monat (+ 12,1%) als auch nach vier Monaten (+ 3,33 %) eine Zunahme unter simultaner biventrikulärer Stimulation als Ausdruck der gesteigerten Inotropie. Erfolgte dann eine Optimierung der AV und VV Zeiten zeigte sich in der 1 Monatskontrolle eine weitere Zunahme von dp/dt um 6,11 % gegenüber der simultanen biventrikulären Stimulation. Dieser Effekt der Optimierung ließ sich auch nach 4 Monaten nachweisen, hier ergab sich eine Zunahme der Anstiegsgeschwindigkeit um 6,99 % durch eine Optimierung gegenüber der simultanen Stimulation. Im zeitlichen Verlauf konnte durch eine erneute Optimierung des biventrikulären Systems eine Zunahme der linksventrikulären Anstiegsgeschwindigkeit von 4,1% gegenüber der ursprünglich optimierten Programmierung erzielt werden. Importance of AV and VV optimization during biventricular pacing systems ths Prof. Dr. Lauer Bernward Lauer, Bernward (Prof. Dr.) Jahnecke, Marcus Jahnecke Marcus Philipps-Universität Marburg
recordtype opus
id urn:nbn:de:hebis:04-z2010-0177
urn_str urn:nbn:de:hebis:04-z2010-01771
collection Monograph
uri_str http://archiv.ub.uni-marburg.de/diss/z2010/0177
callnumber-raw diss/z2010/0177
callnumber-search diss/z2010/0177
callnumber-sort diss/z2010/0177
callnumber-label diss z2010 0177
callnumber-first diss
callnumber-subject diss z2010
_version_ 1563293787065679872
score 9,617626