Microscopic Theory of Photon-Correlation Spectroscopy in Strong-Coupling Semiconductors
While many quantum-optical phenomena are already well established in the atomic systems, like the photon antibunching, squeezing, Bose-Einstein condensation, teleportation, the quantum-optical investigations in semiconductors are still at their beginning. The fascinating results observed in the atom...
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|Summary:||While many quantum-optical phenomena are already well established in the atomic systems, like the photon antibunching, squeezing, Bose-Einstein condensation, teleportation, the quantum-optical investigations in semiconductors are still at their beginning. The fascinating results observed in the atomic systems inspire physicists to demonstrate similar quantum-optical effects also in the semiconductor systems. In contrast to quantum optics with dilute atomic gases, the semiconductors exhibit a complicated many-body problem which is dominated by the Coulomb interaction between the electrons and holes and by coupling with the semiconductor environment. This makes the experimental observation of similar quantum-optical effects in semiconductors demanding. However, there are already experiments which have verified nonclassical effects in semiconductors. In particular, experiments have demonstrated that semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) can exhibit the single-photon emission and generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs. In fact, both atom and QD systems, embedded within a microcavity, have become versatile platforms where one can perform systematic quantum-optics investigations as well as development work toward quantum-information applications. Another interesting field is the strong-coupling regime in which the light-matter coupling exceeds both the decoherence rate of the atom or QD and the cavity resulting in a reversible dynamics between light and matter excitations. In the strong-coupling regime, the Jaynes-Cummings ladder is predicted and shows a photon-number dependent splitting of the new dressed strong-coupling states which are the polariton states of the coupled light-matter system. Although the semiclassical effect of the vacuum Rabi splitting has already been observed in QDs, the verification of the quantum-mechanical Jaynes-Cummings splitting is still missing mainly due to the dephasing. Clearly, the observation of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder in QDs would be a great contribution in the growing field of quantum optics in semiconductors. The efforts in QD systems are again driven by the atomic systems which not only have shown the vacuum Rabi splitting, but also the second rung, e.g. via direct spectroscopy and via photon-correlation measurements. In this thesis, it is shown that spectrally resolved photon-statistics measurements of the resonance fluorescence from realistic semiconductor quantum-dot systems allow for high contrast identification of the two-photon strong-coupling states. Using a microscopic theory, the second-rung resonance of Jaynes-Cummings ladder is analyzed and optimum excitation conditions are determined. The computed photon-statistics spectrum displays gigantic, experimentally robust resonances at the energetic positions of the second-rung emission. The resonance fluorescence equations are derived and solved for strong-coupling semiconductor quantum-dot systems using a fully quantized multimode theory and a cluster-expansion approach. A reduced model is developed to explain the origin of auto- and cross-correlation resonances in the two-photon emission spectrum of the fluorescent light. These resonances are traced back to the two-photon strong-coupling states of Jaynes-Cummings ladder. The accuracy of the reduced model is verified via numerical solution of the resonance fluorescence equations. The analysis reveals the direct relation between the squeezed-light emission and the strong-coupling states in optically excited semiconductor systems.|