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This doctoral thesis aims at researching into pharmaceutical aspects of pediatric therapy during the 15th and 16th century. The thesis starts off with the relevant incunabula of the late 15th century: 'Libellus de egritudinibus infantium' by Paulus Bagellardus (1472) , 'Ein Regiment der jungen Kinder' by Bartholomäus Metlinger (1473) and 'Libellus de egritudinum infantium' by Cornelius Roelans of Mecheln (1483/84), works which according to Karl Sudhoff (1925) have ever since been called 'Erstlinge der pädiatrischen Literatur '. From there on a bridge is thrown to the end of the 16th century looking at six outstanding authors and their works: 'Rosengarten' by Eucharius Rösslin (1513), 'The boke of chyldren' by Thomas Phaire (1544) and 'De morbis puerorum tractatus locupletissimi' by Hieronymus Mercurialis (1583); therewith the range of publications in pediatric therapy at the time is exemplified. Common to these publications is the fact that they all deal with the special physical constitution of babies and children, their diseases, the medical treatments and the precautions taken against illnesses. The titles mentioned are the first monographies in print to deal with pediatrics in its developing stages. Scientifically orientated publications turn much more attention to describing etiology, diagnosis and prognosis than popular works for the layman do, but the instructions for therapeutical instrumentaria do not vary very much. However, divergent assessments of therapeutical concepts, various remedies and differences in the use of simplicia and composita can be noted. The idea of an adequate and suitable therapy for children is expressed in warnings against certain drugs, rectal remedies, purgation, bloodletting or cupping. Furthermore the medical treatment of the wetnurse is considered a suitable method for the child´s benefit, because – as to current belief – the curing effect is transferred to the sibling by the nurse´s milk. On scientifically elaborate basis the thesis proves that even in early times differences in amount and dosis of medication and treatment of childrens' diseases according to age were made and within its historic limitations were diligently worked upon.