Indentifizierung und Charakterisierung der katalytischen Untereinheit von Heterodisulfid-Reduktase aus methanogenen Archaea

Heterodisulfid-Reduktase (Hdr) aus methanogenen Archaea katalysiert die reversible Reduktion des Heterodisulfids (CoM-S-S-CoB) aus Coenzym M (CoM-SH) und Coenzym B (CoB-SH), welches im letzten Schritt der Methanogenese neben Methan gebildet wird. CoM-Hdr ist ein paramagnetisches Intermediat, das dur...

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Bibliographic Details
Main Author: Hamann, Nils
Contributors: Hedderich, Reiner (Dr.) (Thesis advisor)
Format: Dissertation
Language:German
Published: Philipps-Universität Marburg 2007
Biologie
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Table of Contents: Heterodisulfide reductase (HDR) of methanogenic archaea with its active-site [4Fe-4S] cluster catalyzes the reversible reduction of the heterodisulfide (CoM-S-S-CoB) of the methanogenic coenzyme M (CoM-SH) and coenzyme B (CoB-SH). CoM-HDR, a mechanistic-based paramagnetic intermediate generated upon half-reaction of the oxidized enzyme with CoM-SH, is a novel type of [4Fe-4S]3+ cluster with CoM-SH as a ligand. Subunit HdrB of the Methanothermobacter marburgensis HdrABC holoenzyme contains two cysteine-rich sequence motifs (CX31-39CCX35-36CXXC), designated as CCG domain in the Pfam database and conserved in many proteins. Experimental evidence is presented that the C-terminal CCG domain of HdrB binds this unusual [4Fe-4S] cluster. HdrB was produced in Escherichia coli and an iron-sulfur cluster was subsequently inserted by in vitro reconstitution. In the oxidized state the cluster without the substrate exhibited a rhombic EPR signal (gzyx = 2.015, 1.995, and 1.950) reminiscent of the CoM-HDR signal. 57Fe ENDOR spectroscopy revealed that this paramagnetic species is a [4Fe-4S] cluster with 57Fe hyperfine couplings very similar to that of CoM-HDR. CoM-33SH resulted in a broadening of the EPR signal and upon addition of CoM-SH the midpoint potential of the cluster was shifted to values observed for CoM-HDR, both indicating binding of CoM-SH to the cluster. Site-directed mutagenesis of all 12 cysteine residues in HdrB identified four cysteines of the C-terminal CCG domain as cluster ligands. Combined with the previous detection of CoM-HDR-like EPR signals in other CCG domain–containing proteins our data indicate a general role of the C-terminal CCG domain in the coordination of this novel [4Fe-4S] cluster. In addition Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy identified an isolated Zn site with an S3(O/N)1 geometry in HdrB and the HDR holoenzyme. The N-terminal CCG domain is suggested to provide ligands to the Zn site.