In his dissertation the author suggests an alternative to the traditional as well as usual conceptions of the cognitive sciences. His program unfolds - after a short view of the problem history of the mental discourses - concerning the object construction of mental discourses, the research methods as well as foundation methods of the cognitive sciences. At first the object construction of the cognitive sciences is made in conjunction with the practices of the problem solving, which are made out of perception, memory, imagination, thinking and intentions of different kinds (to wish, aim at, will, intend, expect etc.), as well as in conjunction with the dynamic relations between actions of problem solving and problem solving achievements. This means that the author, concerning the status of the mental discourses, takes mental discourses as discourses about the processes of problem solving and the abilities to problem solving achievements. After a discussion of the methods of object construction of the mental discourses the dissertation discusses further the methods which support the problem solving practices practically as well as theoretically. They are for example the interpretation method of actions of people, the method of questions and answers concerning the data acquisition of thoughts, the method of examination of the problem solving abilities, the method of education to improve the abilities of problem solving, the method of experiment concerning the identification of causal components for cognitive achievements, the method of substitution of the human problem solving processes by machine, the modeling method of the cognitive system, etc.. Since they are used not only in human-, social sciences but also in natural- and technological sciences, the cognitive sciences understand themselves as interdisciplinary sciences. As long as supporting practices of problem solving want to remain systematic as well as theoryable, the methods as well as procedures of them must be provided in addition with transsubjective valid techniques or control standards or principles. The dissertation points out that on the part of the cognitive sciences the possibility of producing transsubjective valid knowledges i.e. of scientific knowledges depends on the success of the work to develop such techniques and standards. The dissertation makes even already some considerations concerning such topics. This understands itself as a culturalistic foundation of the methods of the cognitive science. With this the author of the dissertation represents the thesis, to make the (re-)construction as well as foundation of the cognitive sciences neither cognitivistic nor behavioristic, neither mentalistic nor naturalistic, but actiontheoretically or (methodical-) culturalistic.