Since the adoption of the UN-resolution 1325 in 2000, gender awareness has increased in the analysis, prevention and resolution of conflicts and wars. Particularly in the political field of conflict resolution countless educational studies, commentaries and manuals have been produced. They are based on the assumption that gender identities are not only influential factors in wars and violent conflicts, but they are also influenced by them and therefore affect the reconstruction of societies in post-conflict periods. In this working paper a broad overview of feminist approaches in the field of peace and conflict studies will be given. It will focus on the importance of gender identities before, during and after violent conflicts in civil sectors as well as in military contexts. Special attention will be given to international demands on gender mainstreaming in conflict management, peace-keeping and peace-building processes and how these are implemented in conflict resolution processes on military peace-keeping. The paper ends with an analysis of the current German efforts of the implementation of gender issues in peace building-contexts and some critical remarks.