Chemical vapor deposition and physical characterization of gallium, and carbon-related structures on Si (001) and GaP/Si (001) templates for the growth of graphene layers

This study aimed at the deposition of graphene on Si(001) via CVD by depositing Ga on Si, which was then treated with C. Ga has been shown to have a catalytic effect on the growth of graphene. This study focussed on examining the growth surface and the deposition of Ga on this. Si(001) was primarily...

Ausführliche Beschreibung

Gespeichert in:
1. Verfasser: Werner, Katharina
Beteiligte: Stolz, Wolfgang (Dr. habil.) (BetreuerIn (Doktorarbeit))
Format: Dissertation
Sprache:Englisch
Veröffentlicht: Philipps-Universität Marburg 2015
Physik
Ausgabe:http://dx.doi.org/10.17192/z2015.0472
Schlagworte:
Online Zugang:PDF-Volltext
Tags: Tag hinzufügen
Keine Tags, Fügen Sie den ersten Tag hinzu!

1. http://archiv.ub.uni-marburg.de/diss/z2013/0469


2. R. E. Peierls. 'Quelques proprietes typiques des corpses solides.' Ann. I. H. Poincare 5: 177 (1935)


3. Q. Yu et al.. 'Graphene segregated on Ni surfaces and transferred to insulators.' Applied Physics Letters 93, 11: 113103 (2008)


4. X. Li et al.. 'Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils.' Science (New York, N.Y.) 324, 5932: 1312 (2009)


5. A. K. Geim. 'Graphene: Status and Prospects.' Science 324, 5934: 1530 (2009)


6. X. Li et al.. 'Evolution of Graphene Growth on Ni and Cu by Carbon Isotope Labeling.' Nano Letters 9, 12: 4268 (2009)


7. M. Xu et al.. 'Single-layer Graphene Nearly 100% Covering an Entire Substrate.' Technical report (2010)


8. P. Thanh Trung et al.. 'Direct growth of graphitic carbon on Si(111).' Applied Physics Letters 102, 1: 013118 (2013)


9. K. S. Novoselov et al.. 'Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene.' Nature 438, 7065: 197 (2005)


10. G. B. Stringfellow. Organometallic Vapour-Phase Epitaxy: Theory and Practice. Academic Press (1999) Bibliography


11. A. Kumar and H. C. Lee. 'Synthesis and Biomedical Applications of Graphene: Present and Future Trends.' In 'Advances in Graphene Science,' InTech (2013)


12. M. Grundmann. The Physics of Semiconductors. An Introduction Including Nanophysics and Applications. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (2010)


13. P. W. Sutter et al.. 'Epitaxial graphene on ruthenium.' Nature materials 7, 5: 406 (2008)


14. T. Roesener et al.. 'MOVPE Growth of III-V Solar Cells on Silicon in 300 mm Closed Coupled Showerhead Reactor.' In 'EU PVSEC Proceedings,' 964–968. Valencia (2010) [78] A. Ishizaka and Y. Shiraki. 'Low temperature surface cleaning of silicon and its application to silicon MBE.' Journal of the Electrochemical Society 133, 4: 666 (1986)


15. A. Jorio. 'Raman Spectroscopy in Graphene-Based Systems: Prototypes for Nanoscience and Nanometrology.' ISRN Nanotechnology 2012: 1 (2012)


16. Z. W. Pan et al.. 'Gallium-mediated growth of multiwall carbon nanotubes.' Applied Physics Letters 82, 12: 1947 (2003)


17. T. Kuech et al.. 'The influence of growth chemistry on the MOVPE growth of GaAs and Al x Ga (1-x) As layers and heterostructures.' Journal of Crystal Growth 77, 1-3: 257 (1986)


18. P. W. Lee et al.. 'In situ mass spectroscopy and thermogravimetric studies of GaAs MOCVD gas phase and surface reactions.' Journal of Crystal Growth 85, 1-2: 165 (1987)


19. R. Siller et al.. 'The solubility of carbon in palladium and platinum.' Journal of the Less Common Metals 16, 1: 71 (1968)


20. W. J. Arnoult and R. B. McLellan. 'The solubility of carbon in rhodium ruthenium, iridium and rhenium.' Scripta Metallurgica 6, 10: 1013 (1972)


21. K. Yamane et al.. 'Growth of pit-free GaP on Si by suppression of a surface reaction at an initial growth stage.' Journal of Crystal Growth 311, 3: 794 (2009)


22. K. Volz et al.. 'GaP-nucleation on exact Si (001) substrates for III/V device integration.' Journal of Crystal Growth 315, 1: 37 (2011)


23. W. Zhang et al.. 'First-Principles Thermodynamics of Graphene Growth on Cu Surfaces.' The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 115, 36: 17782 (2011)


24. L. Jin et al.. 'Tailoring the Growth of Graphene on Ru(0001) via Engineering of the Substrate Surface.' The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116, 4: 2988 (2012)


25. B. C. Banerjee et al.. 'Pyrolytic Carbon Formation from Carbon Suboxide.' Nature 192, 4801: 450 (1961)


26. A. Zurutuza and C. Marinelli. 'Challenges and opportunities in graphene commer- cialization.' Nature Nanotechnology 9, 10: 730 (2014)


27. R. S. Konar et al.. 'The initiation of chains in the pyrolysis of isobutane.' Journal of the Chemical Society A: Inorganic, Physical, Theoretical 1543 (1967)


28. R. Addou et al.. 'Monolayer graphene growth on Ni(111) by low temperature chemical vapor deposition.' Applied Physics Letters 100, 2 (2012)


29. A. Beyer et al.. 'GaP heteroepitaxy on Si(001): Correlation of Si-surface structure, GaP growth conditions, and Si-III/V interface structure.' Journal of Applied Physics 111, 8: 083534 (2012)


30. R. Beams et al.. 'Raman characterization of defects and dopants in graphene.' Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 27, 8: 083002 (2015)


31. J. Lahiri et al.. 'Graphene growth and stability at nickel surfaces.' New Journal of Physics 13, 2: 025001 (2011)


32. P. H. Keck and J. Broder. 'The solubility of silicon and germanium in gallium and indium.' Physical Review 90, 4: 521 (1953)


33. F. Reboredo et al.. 'Hydrogen-induced instability on the flat Si(001) surface via steric repulsion.' Physical Review B 63, 12 (2001)


34. F. Liu et al.. 'Ab initio calculation of ideal strength and phonon instability of graphene under tension.' Physical Review B 76, 6: 064120 (2007)


35. F. Mittendorfer et al.. 'Graphene on Ni(111): Strong interaction and weak adsorption.' Physical Review B 84, 20: 201401 (2011)


36. R. A. Wolkow. 'Direct observation of an increase in buckled dimers on Si(001) at low temperature.' Physical Review Letters 68, 17: 2636 (1992)


37. G. B. Stringfellow. 'Non-hydride group V sources for OMVPE.' Journal of Electronic Materials 17, 4: 327 (1988)


38. C. Riedl et al.. 'Structural and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001): a review of growth, characterization, transfer doping and hydrogen intercalation.' Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 43, 37: 374009 (2010)


39. S. Brückner et al.. 'Domain-sensitive in situ observation of layer-by-layer removal at Si(100) in H2 ambient.' New Journal of Physics 15 (2013)


40. T. W. Poon et al.. 'Ledge interactions and stress relaxations on Si(001) stepped surfaces.' Physical Review B 45, 7: 3521 (1992)


41. Q. Zhao et al.. 'Ultimate strength of carbon nanotubes: A theoretical study.' Physical Review B 65, 14: 144105 (2002)


42. P. A. Temple and C. E. Hathaway. 'Multiphonon Raman spectrum of silicon.' Physical Review B 7, 8: 3685 (1973)


43. S. Marchini et al.. 'Scanning tunneling microscopy of graphene on Ru(0001).' Physical Review B 76, 7: 075429 (2007)


44. P. A. Khomyakov et al.. 'First-principles study of the interaction and charge transfer between graphene and metals.' Physical Review B 79, 19: 195425 (2009)


45. S. Brückner et al.. 'Anomalous double-layer step formation on Si(100) in hydrogen process ambient.' Physical Review B -Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 86, 19 (2012)


46. D. J. Chadi. 'Stabilities of single-layer and bilayer steps on Si(001) surfaces.' Physical Review Letters 59, 15: 1691 (1987)


47. P. Bedrossian and T. Klitsner. 'Anisotropic vacancy kinetics and single-domain stabilization on Si(100)-2x1.' Physical Review Letters 68, 5: 646 (1992) Bibliography 139


48. A. H. Castro Neto et al.. 'The electronic properties of graphene.' Reviews of Modern Physics 81, 1: 109 (2009)


49. K. S. Novoselov. 'Nobel Lecture: Graphene: Materials in the Flatland.' Reviews of Modern Physics 83, 3: 837 (2011)


50. K. Natesan and T. F. Kassner. 'Thermodynamics of carbon in nickel, iron-nickel and iron-chromium-nickel alloys.' Metallurgical Transactions 4, 11: 2557 (1973)


51. Z. R. Robinson et al.. 'Chemical Vapor Deposition of Two-Dimensional Crystals.' In T. F. Kuech (Editor), 'Handbook of Crystal Growth,' 785–833. Elsevier (2015)


52. A. Stegmüller. 'Description of Gallium Phosphide Epitaxy Growth by Computational Chemistry.' PhD thesis, Philipps-Universität Marburg (2015)


53. P. Sutter et al.. 'Graphene on Pt(111): Growth and substrate interaction.' Physical Review B 80, 24: 245411 (2009)


54. Moorfield Nanotechnology, 'Graphene Produced Using nanoCVD Systems.', http:


55. B. Müller. 'Herstellung und Charakterisierung von epitaktischem Graphen auf präparierten Si(001)-Oberflächen.' Diploma thesis, Philipps-Universität Marburg (2011)


56. X. Li et al.. 'Large-Area Graphene Single Crystals Grown by Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Methane on Copper.' Journal of the American Chemical Society 133, 9: 2816 (2011)


57. A. Dadgar et al.. 'MOVPE growth of GaN on Si(111) substrates.' Journal of Crystal Growth 248: 556 (2003)


58. A. Beyer et al.. 'Pyramidal Structure Formation at the Interface between III/V Semiconductors and Silicon.' submitted


59. I. Vlassiouk et al.. 'Role of Hydrogen in Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Large Single-Crystal Graphene.' ACS Nano 5, 7: 6069 (2011)


60. B. S. Swartzentruber. 'Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of structural disorder and steps on Si surfaces.' Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films 7, 4: 2901 (1989)


61. A. C. Ferrari et al.. 'Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two- dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems.' Nanoscale 7, 11: 4598 (2015)


62. T. A. Land et al.. 'STM investigation of single layer graphite structures produced on Pt (111) by hydrocarbon decomposition.' Surf 264: 261 (1992)


63. J. E. Northrup. 'Structure of Si(100)H: Dependence on the H chemical potential.' Physical Review B 44, 3: 1419 (1991)


64. J. J. Boland. 'Structure of the H-saturated Si(100) surface.' Physical Review Letters 65, 26: 3325 (1990) Bibliography


65. P. R. Wallace. 'The band theory of graphite.' Physical Review 71, 9: 622 (1947) [22] a. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov. 'The rise of graphene.' Nature materials 6, 3: 183 (2007) [23] a. C. Ferrari et al.. 'Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers.' Physical Review Letters 97, 18: 187401 (2006)


66. L. Landau. 'Zur Theorie der phasenumwandlungen II.' Phys. Z. Sowjetunion 11: 26 (1937)


67. Universität Regensburg, AG Prof. Gießibl, 'Raster-Tunnel-Mikroskopie.', http:// www.uni-regensburg.de/physik/giessibl/forschung/methoden/index.html, 2015-07-31


68. E. Kim et al.. 'Growth of Few-Layer Graphene on a Thin Cobalt Film on a Si/SiO2 Substrate.' Chemical Vapor Deposition 17, 1-3: 9 (2011)


69. G. W. Cushing et al.. 'Graphene Growth on Pt(111) by Ethylene Chemical Vapor Deposition at Surface Temperatures near 1000 K.' The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 119, 9: 4759 (2015) Bibliography [44] S. M. Wang et al.. 'Synthesis of graphene on a polycrystalline Co film by radio- frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition.' Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 43, 45: 455402 (2010)


70. A. Gupta et al.. 'Raman Scattering from High-Frequency Phonons in Supported n -Graphene Layer Films.' Nano Letters 6, 12: 2667 (2006)


71. J. M. Wofford et al.. 'Graphene Islands on Cu Foils: The Interplay between Shape, Orientation, and Defects.' Nano Letters 10, 12: 4890 (2010)


72. J. Lahiri et al.. 'Graphene Growth on Ni(111) by Transformation of a Surface Carbide.' Nano Letters 11, 2: 518 (2011)


73. C. B. Duke. 'Semiconductor Surface Reconstruction: The Structural Chemistry of Two-Dimensional Surface Compounds.' Chemical Reviews 96, 4: 1237 (1996) [66] 'WWW Picture gallery based on in the Surface Structure Database (SSD, NIST Standard Reference Database 42) by P. R. Watson, M. A. Van Hove, K. Hermann. The pictures have been prepared from SSD output and postprocessed with BALSAC by K. Hermann.'


74. C. Mattevi et al.. 'A review of chemical vapour deposition of graphene on copper.' J. Mater. Chem. 21, 10: 3324 (2011)


75. A. Stegmüller et al.. 'A quantum chemical study on gas phase decomposition pathways of triethylgallane (TEG, Ga(C2H5)3) and tert-butylphosphine (TBP, PH2(t-C4H9)) under MOVPE conditions.' Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP 16, 32: 17018 (2014)


76. J. Grassman et al.. 'Nucleation-related defect-free GaP/Si(100) heteroepitaxy via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition.' Applied Physics Letters 102, 14: 142102 (2013) Bibliography


77. M. Zinke-Allmang et al.. 'Role of Ostwald ripening in islanding processes.' Applied Physics Letters 51, 13: 975 (1987)


78. J.-H. Oh et al.. 'Metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy of heavily carbon-doped InP using tertiarybutylphosphine as a carbon auto-doping source.' Applied Physics Letters 66, 21: 2891 (1995)


79. A. E. Karu and M. Beer. 'Pyrolytic Formation of Highly Crystalline Graphite Films.' Journal of Applied Physics 37, 5: 2179 (1966) Bibliography 137


80. M. Morita et al.. 'Growth of native oxide on a silicon surface.' Journal of Applied Physics 68, 3: 1272 (1990)


81. M. A. Tamor and W. C. Vassell. 'Raman "fingerprinting" of amorphous carbon films.' Journal of Applied Physics 76, 6: 3823 (1994)


82. R. Lin. 'The decomposition of triethylgallium on Si(100).' Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures 7, 4: 725 (1989)


83. Prentice-Hall Inc., 'sp2 Hybrid Orbitals.', http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/ objects/724/741576/chapter\_01.html, 2015-07-16


84. R. Van Noorden. 'Chemistry: The trials of new carbon.' Nature 469, 7328: 14 (2011)


85. S. Bae et al.. 'Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes.' Nature Nanotechnology 5, 8: 574 (2010)


86. P. Sutter. 'Epitaxial graphene: How silicon leaves the scene.' Nature Materials 8, 3: 171 (2009)


87. G. Wang et al.. 'Direct Growth of Graphene Film on Germanium Substrate.' Scientific Reports 3 (2013)


88. J. Wang et al.. 'High-mobility graphene on liquid p-block elements by ultra-low-loss CVD growth.' Scientific Reports 3 (2013)


89. S. S. Li and W. R. Thurber. 'The dopant density and temperature dependence of electron mobility and resistivity in n-type silicon.' Solid-State Electronics 20, 7: 609 (1977)


90. T. Tabata et al.. 'Order-disorder transition on Si(001): c(4×2) to (2×1).' Surface Science 179, 1: L63 (1987)


91. P. C. Weakliem et al.. 'Subpicosecond interconversion of buckled and symmetric dimers on Si(100).' Surface Science 232, 3: L219 (1990)


92. A. Obraztsov et al.. 'Chemical vapor deposition of thin graphite films of nanometer thickness.' Carbon 45, 10: 2017 (2007)


93. J. Park et al.. 'Growth and properties of few-layer graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition.' Carbon 48, 4: 1088 (2010)


94. L. Huang et al.. 'Synthesis of high-quality graphene films on nickel foils by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition.' Carbon 50, 2: 551 (2012)


95. I. Németh et al.. 'Heteroepitaxy of GaP on Si: Correlation of morphology, anti- phase-domain structure and MOVPE growth conditions.' Journal of Crystal Growth 310, 7-9: 1595 (2008)


96. K. Werner et al.. 'Structural characteristics of gallium metal deposited on Si (001) by MOCVD.' Journal of Crystal Growth 405: 102 (2014)


97. H. Ishikawa et al.. 'Thermal stability of GaN on (111) Si substrate.' Journal of Crystal Growth 189-190: 178 (1998)


98. K. Takahashi et al.. 'In situ scanning electron microscopy of graphene growth on polycrystalline Ni substrate.' Surface Science 606, 7-8: 728 (2012)


99. M. Dürr and U. Höfer. 'Hydrogen diffusion on silicon surfaces.' Progress in Surface Science 88, 1: 61 (2013)


100. G. López and E. Mittemeijer. 'The solubility of C in solid Cu.' Scripta Materialia 51, 1: 1 (2004)


101. K. S. Novoselov et al.. 'Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films.' Science 306, 5696: 666 (2004)


102. C. Lee et al.. 'Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene.' Science 321, 5887: 385 (2008)


103. L. Wang et al.. 'One-Dimensional Electrical Contact to a Two-Dimensional Material.' Science 342, 6158: 614 (2013)