Die Phosphorylierung des Ebolavirus VP30 reguliert die virale Transkription und Replikation

Das Ebolavirus bildet zusammen mit dem Marburgvirus die Familie der Filoviridae, die ein einzelsträngiges nichtsegmentiertes RNA Genom in negativer Orientierung besitzen. Filoviren verursachen schwere hämorrhagische Fieber in Menschen und Affen, weswegen sie als BSL4-Pathogene klassifiziert werden....

Ausführliche Beschreibung

Gespeichert in:
1. Verfasser: Biedenkopf, Nadine
Beteiligte: Becker, Stephan (Prof. Dr. ) (BetreuerIn (Doktorarbeit))
Format: Dissertation
Sprache:Deutsch
Veröffentlicht: Philipps-Universität Marburg 2012
Medizin
Ausgabe:http://dx.doi.org/10.17192/z2012.0258
Schlagworte:
Online Zugang:PDF-Volltext
Tags: Tag hinzufügen
Keine Tags, Fügen Sie den ersten Tag hinzu!

1. Laemmli, U. K. 1970. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227:680-685.


2. http://archiv.ub.uni-marburg.de/diss/z2008/0067


3. Nichol, and P. E. Rollin. 2009. Isolation of genetically diverse Marburg viruses from Egyptian fruit bats. PLoS Pathog 5:e1000536.


4. Licata, J. M., R. F. Johnson, Z. Han, and R. N. Harty. 2004. Contribution of ebola virus glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, and VP24 to budding of VP40 virus-like particles. J Virol. 78:7344- 7351.


5. Mateo, M., S. P. Reid, L. W. Leung, C. F. Basler, and V. E. Volchkov. 2010. Ebolavirus VP24 binding to karyopherins is required for inhibition of interferon signaling. J Virol 84:1169-1175.


6. Hoenen, T., S. Jung, A. Herwig, A. Groseth, and S. Becker. 2010. Both matrix proteins of Ebola virus contribute to the regulation of viral genome replication and transcription. Virology 403:56-66.


7. Modrof, J., E. Muhlberger, H. D. Klenk, and S. Becker. 2002. Phosphorylation of VP30 impairs ebola virus transcription. J Biol Chem. 277:33099-33104.


8. Leroy, E. M., P. Telfer, B. Kumulungui, P. Yaba, P. Rouquet, P. Roques, J. P. Gonzalez, T. G. Ksiazek, P. E. Rollin, and E. Nerrienet. 2004. A serological survey of Ebola virus infection in central African nonhuman primates. J Infect Dis 190:1895-1899.


9. Simpson, T. W. Geisbert, P. B. Jahrling, C. J. Peters, and T. G. Ksiazek. 1999. Ebola (subtype Reston) virus among quarantined nonhuman primates recently imported from the Philippines to the United States. J Infect Dis 179 Suppl 1:S108-114.


10. Jahrling, P. B., T. W. Geisbert, J. B. Geisbert, J. R. Swearengen, M. Bray, N. K. Jaax, J. W. Huggins, J. W. LeDuc, and C. J. Peters. 1999. Evaluation of immune globulin and recombinant interferon-alpha2b for treatment of experimental Ebola virus infections. J Infect Dis 179 Suppl 1:S224-234.


11. Zaki, S. R., W. J. Shieh, P. W. Greer, C. S. Goldsmith, T. Ferebee, J. Katshitshi, F. K. Tshioko, M. A. Bwaka, R. Swanepoel, P. Calain, A. S. Khan, E. Lloyd, P. E. Rollin, T. G. Ksiazek, and C. J. Peters. 1999. A novel immunohistochemical assay for the detection of Ebola virus in skin: implications for diagnosis, spread, and surveillance of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Commission de Lutte contre les Epidémies à Kikwit. J Infect Dis 179 Suppl 1:S36-47. 111


12. Sanchez, A. 2007. Analysis of filovirus entry into vero e6 cells, using inhibitors of endocytosis, endosomal acidification, structural integrity, and cathepsin (B and L) activity. J Infect Dis 196 Suppl 2:S251-258.


13. Sureau, P. H. 1989. Firsthand clinical observations of hemorrhagic manifestations in Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Zaire. Rev Infect Dis 11 Suppl 4:S790-793.


14. Richman, D. D., P. H. Cleveland, J. B. McCormick, and K. M. Johnson. 1983. Antigenic analysis of strains of Ebola virus: identification of two Ebola virus serotypes. J Infect Dis 147:268-271.


15. Martinez, M. J., V. A. Volchkova, H. Raoul, N. Alazard-Dany, O. Reynard, and V. E. Volchkov. 2011. Role of VP30 Phosphorylation in the Ebola Virus Replication Cycle. J Infect Dis 204 Suppl 3:S934-940.


16. Noda, T., K. Hagiwara, H. Sagara, and Y. Kawaoka. 2010. Characterization of the Ebola virus nucleoprotein-RNA complex. J Gen Virol 91:1478-1483.


17. Martínez, M. J., N. Biedenkopf, V. Volchkova, B. Hartlieb, N. Alazard-Dany, O. Reynard, S. Becker, and V. Volchkov. 2008. Role of Ebola virus VP30 in transcription reinitiation. J Virol 82:12569-12573.


18. Modrof, J., S. Becker, and E. Mühlberger. 2003. Ebola virus transcription activator VP30 is a zinc-binding protein. J Virol. 77:3334-3338.


19. Watanabe, S., T. Noda, and Y. Kawaoka. 2006. Functional mapping of the nucleoprotein of Ebola virus. J Virol 80:3743-3751.


20. Tuffs, A. 2009. Experimental vaccine may have saved Hamburg scientist from Ebola fever. BMJ 338:b1223.


21. Le Guenno, B., P. Formenty, and C. Boesch. 1999. Ebola virus outbreaks in the Ivory Coast and Liberia, 1994-1995. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 235:77-84.


22. Nanbo, A., M. Imai, S. Watanabe, T. Noda, K. Takahashi, G. Neumann, P. Halfmann, and Y. Kawaoka. 2010. Ebolavirus is internalized into host cells via macropinocytosis in a viral glycoprotein-dependent manner. PLoS Pathog 6. 146.


23. Richardson, J. S., M. K. Yao, K. N. Tran, M. A. Croyle, J. E. Strong, H. Feldmann, and G. P. Kobinger. 2009. Enhanced protection against Ebola virus mediated by an improved adenovirus- based vaccine. PLoS One 4:e5308.


24. Noda, T., H. Sagara, E. Suzuki, A. Takada, H. Kida, and Y. Kawaoka. 2002. Ebola virus VP40 drives the formation of virus-like filamentous particles along with GP. J Virol. 76:4855-4865.


25. Ryabchikova, E., L. Kolesnikova, M. Smolina, V. Tkachev, L. Pereboeva, S. Baranova, A. Grazhdantseva, and Y. Rassadkin. 1996. Ebola virus infection in guinea pigs: presumable role of granulomatous inflammation in pathogenesis. Arch Virol 141:909-921.


26. Karber, G. 1931. 50% end-point calculation. Arch. Exp. Pathol. Pharmak., 162, 480-483. 162:480-483.


27. Sanchez, A., M. Lukwiya, D. Bausch, S. Mahanty, A. J. Sanchez, K. D. Wagoner, and P. E. Rollin. 2004. Analysis of human peripheral blood samples from fatal and nonfatal cases of Ebola (Sudan) hemorrhagic fever: cellular responses, virus load, and nitric oxide levels. J Virol. 78:10370-10377.


28. Ruthel, G., G. L. Demmin, G. Kallstrom, M. P. Javid, S. S. Badie, A. B. Will, T. Nelle, R. Schokman, T. L. Nguyen, J. H. Carra, S. Bavari, and M. J. Aman. 2005. Association of ebola virus matrix protein VP40 with microtubules. Journal of Virology. 79:4709-4719.


29. Leroy, E., X. Pourrut, and J. P. Gonzalez. 2006. [Bats, reserves of the Ebola virus: the mystery is dissipated]. Med Sci (Paris) 22:78-79.


30. Kolesnikova, L., A. B. Bohil, R. E. Cheney, and S. Becker. 2007. Budding of Marburgvirus is associated with filopodia. Cell Microbiol 9:939-951.


31. Wool-Lewis, R. J., and P. Bates. 1998. Characterization of Ebola virus entry by using pseudotyped viruses: identification of receptor-deficient cell lines. J Virol. 72:3155-3160.


32. Manicassamy, B., J. Wang, E. Rumschlag, S. Tymen, V. Volchkova, V. Volchkov, and L. Rong. 2007. Characterization of Marburg virus glycoprotein in viral entry. Virology 358:79-88.


33. Volchkov, V. E., V. A. Volchkova, A. A. Chepurnov, V. M. Blinov, O. Dolnik, S. V. Netesov, and H. Feldmann. 1999. Characterization of the L gene and 5' trailer region of Ebola virus. J Gen Virol 80 ( Pt 2):355-362.


34. Miranda, M. E., Y. Yoshikawa, D. L. Manalo, A. B. Calaor, N. L. Miranda, F. Cho, T. Ikegami, and T. G. Ksiazek. 2002. Chronological and spatial analysis of the 1996 Ebola Reston virus outbreak in a monkey breeding facility in the Philippines. Exp Anim 51:173-179.


35. Mühlberger, E., M. Weik, V. E. Volchkov, H.-D. Klenk, and S. Becker. 1999. Comparison of the transcription and replication strategies of marburg virus and Ebola virus by using artificial replication systems. J Virol. 73:2333-2342.


36. Manicassamy, B., J. Wang, H. Jiang, and L. Rong. 2005. Comprehensive analysis of ebola virus GP1 in viral entry. J Virol. 79:4793-4805.


37. P. Norman Davey, Stephan Becker, John A. G. Briggs. 2011. Cryo-Electron Tomography of Marburg Virus Particles and Their Morphogenesis within Infected Cells, PLoS Biology. 191. Theriault, S., A. Groseth, H. Artsob, and H. Feldmann. 2005. The role of reverse genetics systems in determining filovirus pathogenicity. Arch Virol Suppl:157-177.


38. Weissenhorn, W., A. Carfi, K. H. Lee, J. J. Skehel, and D. C. Wiley. 1998. Crystal structure of the Ebola virus membrane fusion subunit, GP2, from the envelope glycoprotein ectodomain. Mol Cell. 2:605-616.


39. Burke, M. J. Buchmeier, E. J. Soilleux, J. L. Riley, R. W. Doms, P. Bates, and S. Pohlmann. 2003. DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR bind ebola glycoproteins and enhance infection of macrophages and endothelial cells. Virology. 305:115-123.


40. Marzi, A., T. Gramberg, G. Simmons, P. Moller, A. J. Rennekamp, M. Krumbiegel, M. Geier, J. Eisemann, N. Turza, B. Saunier, A. Steinkasserer, S. Becker, P. Bates, H. Hofmann, and S. Pohlmann. 2004. DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR interact with the glycoprotein of Marburg virus and the S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J Virol. 78:12090-12095.


41. Wang, D., N. U. Raja, C. M. Trubey, L. Y. Juompan, M. Luo, J. Woraratanadharm, S. B. Deitz, H. Yu, B. M. Swain, K. M. Moore, W. D. Pratt, M. K. Hart, and J. Y. Dong. 2006. Development of a cAdVax-based bivalent ebola virus vaccine that induces immune responses against both the Sudan and Zaire species of Ebola virus. J Virol. 80:2738-2746.


42. Sullivan, N. J., A. Sanchez, P. E. Rollin, Z. Y. Yang, and G. J. Nabel. 2000. Development of a preventive vaccine for Ebola virus infection in primates. Nature 408:605-609.


43. Takada, A., S. Watanabe, H. Ito, K. Okazaki, H. Kida, and Y. Kawaoka. 2000. Downregulation of beta1 integrins by Ebola virus glycoprotein: implication for virus entry. Virology 278:20-26.


44. KONGRESSBEITRÄGE * Präsentierender Autor 03 / 2011 Dynamic phosphorylation of Ebola virus VP30 serine 29 is essential and sufficient for primary viral transcription Nadine Biedenkopf* and Stephan Becker Vortrag, Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Virologie, Freiburg 03 / 2011 Studying the molecular biology of filoviruses using reverse genetics Nadine Biedenkopf* Vortrag, DAAD Austausch mit Bolivien, Marburg 06 / 2010 Primary viral transcription of Ebola Virus is dependent on dynamic phosphorylation of VP30 Nadine Biedenkopf* and Stephan Becker Posterpräsentation, Negativ Strand Virus Meeting, Brügge, Belgien 118


45. Karesh, W., and P. Reed. 2005. Ebola and great apes in Central Africa: current status and future needs. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 98:237-238.


46. Leroy, E. M., J. P. Gonzalez, and S. Baize. 2011. Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever viruses: major scientific advances, but a relatively minor public health threat for Africa. Clin Microbiol Infect 17:964-976.


47. Hensley, L. E., S. M. Jones, H. Feldmann, P. B. Jahrling, and T. W. Geisbert. 2005. Ebola and Marburg viruses: pathogenesis and development of countermeasures. Curr Mol Med 5:761- 772.


48. Hoenen, T., A. Groseth, D. Falzarano, and H. Feldmann. 2006. Ebola virus: unravelling pathogenesis to combat a deadly disease. Trends Mol Med 12:206-215.


49. Reid, S. P., L. W. Leung, A. L. Hartman, O. Martinez, M. L. Shaw, C. Carbonnelle, V. E. Volchkov, S. T. Nichol, and C. F. Basler. 2006. Ebola virus VP24 binds karyopherin alpha1 and blocks STAT1 nuclear accumulation. J Virol. 80:5156-5167.


50. Weik, M., J. Modrof, H. D. Klenk, S. Becker, and E. Muhlberger. 2002. Ebola virus VP30- mediated transcription is regulated by RNA secondary structure formation. J Virol. 76:8532- 8539.


51. Normile, D. 2009. Emerging infectious diseases. Scientists puzzle over Ebola-Reston virus in pigs. Science 323:451.


52. Jahrling, P. B., T. W. Geisbert, N. K. Jaax, M. A. Hanes, T. G. Ksiazek, and C. J. Peters. 1996. Experimental infection of cynomolgus macaques with Ebola-Reston filoviruses from the 1989- 1990 U.S. epizootic. Arch Virol Suppl 11:115-134.


53. Kiley, M. P., E. T. Bowen, G. A. Eddy, M. Isaacson, K. M. Johnson, J. B. McCormick, F. A. Murphy, S. R. Pattyn, D. Peters, O. W. Prozesky, R. L. Regnery, D. I. Simpson, W. Slenczka, P. Sureau, G. van der Groen, P. A. Webb, and H. Wulff. 1982. Filoviridae: a taxonomic home for Marburg and Ebola viruses?. Intervirology. 18:24-32. 104


54. Leroy, E. M., B. Kumulungui, X. Pourrut, P. Rouquet, A. Hassanin, P. Yaba, A. Délicat, J. T. Paweska, J. P. Gonzalez, and R. Swanepoel. 2005. Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus. Nature 438:575-576.


55. Schmid, S., D. Mayer, U. Schneider, and M. Schwemmle. 2007. Functional characterization of the major and minor phosphorylation sites of the P protein of Borna disease virus. J Virol 81:5497-5507.


56. Mühlberger, E. 2004. Genome organization, replication and transcription of filoviruses. Horizon Bioscience, Norfolk, U.K. 142. Mühlberger, E., B. Lotfering, H.-D. Klenk, and S. Becker. 1998. Three of the four nucleocapsid proteins of Marburg virus, NP, VP35, and L, are sufficient to mediate replication and transcription of Marburg virus-specific monocistronic minigenomes. J Virol. 72:8756-8764.


57. Une, Y. Nomura, I. Kurane, T. G. Ksiazek, Y. Yoshikawa, and S. Morikawa. 2002. Histopathology of natural Ebola virus subtype Reston infection in cynomolgus macaques during the Philippine outbreak in 1996. Exp Anim 51:447-455.


58. Martin-Serrano, J., T. Zang, and P. D. Bieniasz. 2001. HIV-1 and Ebola virus encode small peptide motifs that recruit Tsg101 to sites of particle assembly to facilitate egress. Nat Med. 7:1313-1319.


59. Lenard, J. 1999. Host cell protein kinases in nonsegmented negative-strand virus (mononegavirales) infection. Pharmacol Ther 83:39-48.


60. Leroy, E. M., S. Baize, V. E. Volchkov, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, M. C. Georges-Courbot, J. Lansoud- Soukate, M. Capron, P. Debré, J. B. McCormick, and A. J. Georges. 2000. Human asymptomatic Ebola infection and strong inflammatory response. Lancet 355:2210-2215.


61. Leroy, E. M., A. Epelboin, V. Mondonge, X. Pourrut, J. P. Gonzalez, J. J. Muyembe-Tamfum, and P. Formenty. 2009. Human Ebola outbreak resulting from direct exposure to fruit bats in Luebo, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2007. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 9:723-728.


62. Sanchez, A., and M. P. Kiley. 1987. Identification and analysis of Ebola virus messenger RNA. Virology 157:414-420.


63. Yang, Z. Y., H. J. Duckers, N. J. Sullivan, A. Sanchez, E. G. Nabel, and G. J. Nabel. 2000. Identification of the Ebola virus glycoprotein as the main viral determinant of vascular cell cytotoxicity and injury. Nat Med. 6:886-889.


64. Hoenen, T., A. Groseth, L. Kolesnikova, S. Theriault, H. Ebihara, B. Hartlieb, S. Bamberg, H. Feldmann, U. Stroher, and S. Becker. 2006. Infection of naive target cells with virus-like particles: implications for the function of ebola virus VP24. J Virol. 80:7260-7264.


65. Usami, K., K. Matsuno, M. Igarashi, K. Denda-Nagai, A. Takada, and T. Irimura. 2011. Involvement of viral envelope GP2 in Ebola virus entry into cells expressing the macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 407:74-78. 109 203. van Regenmortel, M. H. V., C. M. Fauquet,, D. H. L. Bishop, E. B. Carstens, M. K. Estes, S. M. Lemon, J. Maniloff, M. A. Mayo, D. J. McGeoch, C. R. Pringle, and R. B. Wickner. . 2000. Virus Taxonomy, VIIth report of the ICTV. Academic Press, San Diego, USA. 204.


66. Johnson, K. M., J. V. Lange, P. A. Webb, and F. A. Murphy. 1977. Isolation and partial characterisation of a new virus causing acute haemorrhagic fever in Zaire. Lancet. 1:569-571.


67. Noda, T., S. Watanabe, H. Sagara, and Y. Kawaoka. 2007. Mapping of the VP40-binding regions of the nucleoprotein of Ebola virus. J Virol 81:3554-3562.


68. Simpson, D. I. 1977. Marburg fever. Nurs Mirror. 144:13-15.


69. Martini, G. A. 1971. Marburg Virus Disease, Clinical Syndrome. In: Marburg Virus Disease. (Martini, G. A. and Siegert, R., eds.). 1st ed. Springer Verlag, New York, USA:1-230.


70. Towner, J. S., X. Pourrut, C. G. Albariño, C. N. Nkogue, B. H. Bird, G. Grard, T. G. Ksiazek, J. P. Gonzalez, S. T. Nichol, and E. M. Leroy. 2007. Marburg virus infection detected in a common African bat. PLoS One 2:e764.


71. Warfield, K. L., D. L. Swenson, D. L. Negley, A. L. Schmaljohn, M. J. Aman, and S. Bavari. 2004. Marburg virus-like particles protect guinea pigs from lethal Marburg virus infection. Vaccine. 22:3495-3502.


72. Hoenen, T., A. Groseth, F. de Kok-Mercado, J. H. Kuhn, and V. Wahl-Jensen. 2011. Minigenomes, transcription and replication competent virus-like particles and beyond: Reverse genetics systems for filoviruses and other negative stranded hemorrhagic fever viruses. Antiviral Res.


73. Yang, J., J. S. Hwang, H. Camakaris, W. Irawaty, A. Ishihama, and J. Pittard. 2004. Mode of action of the TyrR protein: repression and activation of the tyrP promoter of Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol 52:243-256.


74. Mavrakis, M., L. Kolesnikova, G. Schoehn, S. Becker, and R. W. Ruigrok. 2002. Morphology of Marburg virus NP-RNA. Virology. 296:300-307.


75. Ito, H., S. Watanabe, A. Sanchez, M. A. Whitt, and Y. Kawaoka. 1999. Mutational analysis of the putative fusion domain of Ebola virus glycoprotein. J Virol. 73:8907-8912.


76. Noda, T., K. Aoyama, H. Sagara, H. Kida, and Y. Kawaoka. 2005. Nucleocapsid-like structures of Ebola virus reconstructed using electron tomography. J Vet Med Sci 67:325-328.


77. Licata, J. M., M. Simpson-Holley, N. T. Wright, Z. Han, J. Paragas, and R. N. Harty. 2003. Overlapping motifs (PTAP and PPEY) within the Ebola virus VP40 protein function independently as late budding domains: involvement of host proteins TSG101 and VPS-4. J Virol. 77:1812-1819.


78. Mahanty, S., and M. Bray. 2004. Pathogenesis of filoviral haemorrhagic fevers. Lancet Infect Dis. 4:487-498.


79. PUBLIKATIONEN * geteilte Erstautorenschaft 11 / 2011 Phosphorylation of Marburg virus NP region II modulates viral RNA synthesis Andrea Di Carlo*, Nadine Biedenkopf*, Bettina Hartlieb, Anja Klußmeier, Stephan Becker Journal of Infectious Diseases, November 2011, Vol. 204, Issue Suppl 3: p S927-933 11 / 2011 Ebola virus enters host cells by macropinocytosis and clathrin- mediated endocytosis Paulina Aleksandrowicz, Andrea Marzi, Nadine Biedenkopf, Nadine Beimforde, Stephan Becker, Thomas Hoenen, Heinz Feldmann, Hans- Joachim Schnittler Journal of Infectious Diseases, November 2011, Vol. 204, Issue Suppl 3: pS957-967


80. Volchkov, V. E., V. A. Volchkova, E. Muhlberger, L. V. Kolesnikova, M. Weik, O. Dolnik, and H. D. Klenk. 2001. Recovery of infectious Ebola virus from complementary DNA: RNA editing of the GP gene and viral cytotoxicity. Science. 291:1965-1969.


81. Patel, and H. M. Weingartl. 2011. Replication, Pathogenicity, Shedding, and Transmission of Zaire ebolavirus in Pigs. J Infect Dis 204:200-208. 102. Kolakofsky, D., P. Le Mercier, F. Iseni, and D. Garcin. 2004. Viral DNA polymerase scanning and the gymnastics of Sendai virus RNA synthesis. Virology. 318:463-473.


82. Ryabchikova, E., L. Strelets, L. Kolesnikova, O. Pyankov, and A. Sergeev. 1996. Respiratory Marburg virus infection in guinea pigs. Arch Virol 141:2177-2190.


83. Whelan, S. P. 2008. Response to "Non-segmented negative-strand RNA virus RNA synthesis in vivo". Virology 371:234-237.


84. Plattet, P., L. Strahle, P. le Mercier, S. Hausmann, D. Garcin, and D. Kolakofsky. 2007. Sendai virus RNA polymerase scanning for mRNA start sites at gene junctions. Virology 362:411-420.


85. Sanchez, A., M. P. Kiley, B. P. Holloway, and D. D. Auperin. 1993. Sequence analysis of the Ebola virus genome: organization, genetic elements, and comparison with the genome of Marburg virus. Virus Res 29:215-240.


86. Weissenhorn, W., A. Dessen, L. J. Calder, S. C. Harrison, J. J. Skehel, and D. C. Wiley. 1999. Structural basis for membrane fusion by enveloped viruses. Mol Membr Biol. 16:3-9. 216. Welsch, S., L. Kolesnikova, V. Krähling, J. D. Riches, S. Becker, and J. A. Briggs. 2010. Electron tomography reveals the steps in filovirus budding. PLoS Pathog 6:e1000875.


87. Modrof, J. 2002. Strukturelle Charakteristika des Ebola-Virus VP30 und deren funktionelle Bedeutung. Philipps-Universität Marburg, Marburg.


88. Yonezawa, A., M. Cavrois, and W. C. Greene. 2005. Studies of ebola virus glycoprotein- mediated entry and fusion by using pseudotyped human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions: involvement of cytoskeletal proteins and enhancement by tumor necrosis factor alpha. J Virol 79:918-926. 110


89. Nichol, T. G. Ksiazek, J. T. Paweska, and I. S. a. T. C. f. M. H. F. C. i. t. D. R. o. Congo. 2007. Studies of reservoir hosts for Marburg virus. Emerg Infect Dis 13:1847-1851.


90. Mühlberger, E., S. Trommer, C. Funke, V. Volchkov, H. D. Klenk, and S. Becker. 1996. Termini of all mRNA species of Marburg virus: sequence and secondary structure. Virology. 223:376- 380. 106


91. Weik, M., S. Enterlein, K. Schlenz, and E. Mühlberger. 2005. The Ebola virus genomic replication promoter is bipartite and follows the rule of six. J Virol 79:10660-10671.


92. John, S. P., T. Wang, S. Steffan, S. Longhi, C. S. Schmaljohn, and C. B. Jonsson. 2007. The Ebola Virus VP30 is an RNA Binding Protein. J Virol. 96.


93. Kolesnikova, L., S. Bamberg, B. Berghofer, and S. Becker. 2004. The matrix protein of Marburg virus is transported to the plasma membrane along cellular membranes: exploiting the retrograde late endosomal pathway. J Virol. 78:2382-2393.


94. Shimojima, M., Y. Ikeda, and Y. Kawaoka. 2007. The mechanism of Axl-mediated Ebola virus infection. J Infect Dis 196 Suppl 2:S259-263.


95. Tran, T. L., N. Castagné, V. Dubosclard, S. Noinville, E. Koch, M. Moudjou, C. Henry, J. Bernard, R. P. Yeo, and J. F. Eléouët. 2009. The respiratory syncytial virus M2-1 protein forms tetramers and interacts with RNA and P in a competitive manner. J Virol 83:6363-6374.


96. Pohlmann. 2006. The signal peptide of the ebolavirus glycoprotein influences interaction with the cellular lectins DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR. J Virol. 80:6305-6317.


97. Hunt, C. L., A. A. Kolokoltsov, R. A. Davey, and W. Maury. 2011. The Tyro3 receptor kinase Axl enhances macropinocytosis of Zaire ebolavirus. J Virol 85:334-347.


98. Whelan, S. P., J. N. Barr, and G. W. Wertz. 2004. Transcription and replication of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 283:61-119. 219. WHO. 1978. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976. Report of a WHO/International Study Team. Bull World Health Organ. 56:247-270. 220. WHO. 1978. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever in Zaire. Bull World Health Organ. 56:271-293.


99. J. Muyembe-Tamfum. 1999. Treatment of Ebola hemorrhagic fever with blood transfusions from convalescent patients. International Scientific and Technical Committee. J Infect Dis 179 Suppl 1:S18-23.


100. Qanungo, K. R., D. Shaji, M. Mathur, and A. K. Banerjee. 2004. Two RNA polymerase complexes from vesicular stomatitis virus-infected cells that carry out transcription and replication of genome RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:5952-5957.


101. Dong, and W. D. Pratt. 2008. Vaccine to confer to nonhuman primates complete protection against multistrain Ebola and Marburg virus infections. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:460-467.


102. Timmins, J., S. Scianimanico, G. Schoehn, and W. Weissenhorn. 2001. Vesicular release of ebola virus matrix protein VP40. Virology. 283:1-6.


103. Zaki, S. R., and C. J. Peters. 1997. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever. In: Diagnostic Pathology of Infectious Diseases (Connor, D. H., Chandler, F. W., Schwartz, D. A., Manz, H. J., Lack, E. E., eds.). Appleton and Lange, Stamford, USA:347-64.


104. Regnery, R. L., K. M. Johnson, and M. P. Kiley. 1980. Virion nucleic acid of Ebola virus. J Virol 36:465-469.


105. Leroy, E. M., S. Baize, P. Debre, J. Lansoud-Soukate, and E. Mavoungou. 2001. Early immune responses accompanying human asymptomatic Ebola infections. Clin Exp Immunol. 124:453- 460.


106. Pourrut, X., M. Souris, J. S. Towner, P. E. Rollin, S. T. Nichol, J. P. Gonzalez, and E. Leroy. 2009. Large serological survey showing cocirculation of Ebola and Marburg viruses in Gabonese bat populations, and a high seroprevalence of both viruses in Rousettus aegyptiacus. BMC Infect Dis 9:159.


107. Swenson, D. L., K. L. Warfield, D. L. Negley, A. Schmaljohn, M. J. Aman, and S. Bavari. 2005. Virus-like particles exhibit potential as a pan-filovirus vaccine for both Ebola and Marburg viral infections. Vaccine 23:3033-3042.


108. Sullivan, V. E. Volchkov, E. A. Fritz, K. M. Daddario, L. E. Hensley, P. B. Jahrling, and T. W. Geisbert. 2005. Live attenuated recombinant vaccine protects nonhuman primates against Ebola and Marburg viruses. Nat Med. 11:786-790.


109. Hwang, L. N., N. Englund, T. Das, A. K. Banerjee, and A. K. Pattnaik. 1999. Optimal replication activity of vesicular stomatitis virus RNA polymerase requires phosphorylation of a residue(s) at carboxy-terminal domain II of its accessory subunit, phosphoprotein P. J Virol 73:5613-5620.


110. Ito, H., S. Watanabe, A. Takada, and Y. Kawaoka. 2001. Ebola virus glycoprotein: proteolytic processing, acylation, cell tropism, and detection of neutralizing antibodies. Journal of Virology. 75:1576-1580.


111. Jasenosky, L. D., G. Neumann, I. Lukashevich, and Y. Kawaoka. 2001. Ebola virus VP40-induced particle formation and association with the lipid bilayer. J Virol. 75:5205-5214.


112. Neumann, G., H. Feldmann, S. Watanabe, I. Lukashevich, and Y. Kawaoka. 2002. Reverse genetics demonstrates that proteolytic processing of the Ebola virus glycoprotein is not essential for replication in cell culture. J Virol 76:406-410.


113. Sullivan, N. J., T. W. Geisbert, J. B. Geisbert, D. J. Shedlock, L. Xu, L. Lamoreaux, J. H. Custers, P. M. Popernack, Z. Y. Yang, M. G. Pau, M. Roederer, R. A. Koup, J. Goudsmit, P. B. Jahrling, and G. J. Nabel. 2006. Immune protection of nonhuman primates against Ebola virus with single low-dose adenovirus vectors encoding modified GPs. PLoS Med 3:e177.


114. Shimojima, M., A. Takada, H. Ebihara, G. Neumann, K. Fujioka, T. Irimura, S. Jones, H. Feldmann, and Y. Kawaoka. 2006. Tyro3 family-mediated cell entry of Ebola and Marburg viruses. J Virol 80:10109-10116.


115. Mittler, E., L. Kolesnikova, T. Strecker, W. Garten, and S. Becker. 2007. Role of the transmembrane domain of marburg virus surface protein GP in assembly of the viral envelope. J Virol 81:3942-3948.


116. Urata, S., T. Noda, Y. Kawaoka, S. Morikawa, H. Yokosawa, and J. Yasuda. 2007. Interaction of Tsg101 with Marburg virus VP40 depends on the PPPY motif, but not the PT/SAP motif as in the case of Ebola virus, and Tsg101 plays a critical role in the budding of Marburg virus-like particles induced by VP40, NP, and GP. J Virol 81:4895-4899.


117. Volchkov, V. E., H. Feldmann, V. A. Volchkova, and H. D. Klenk. 1998. Processing of the Ebola virus glycoprotein by the proprotein convertase furin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 95:5762-5767.


118. Mason, S. W., E. Aberg, C. Lawetz, R. DeLong, P. Whitehead, and M. Liuzzi. 2003. Interaction between human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) M2-1 and P proteins is required for reconstitution of M2-1-dependent RSV minigenome activity. J Virol. 77:10670-10676.


119. Towner, J. S., T. K. Sealy, M. L. Khristova, C. G. Albariño, S. Conlan, S. A. Reeder, P. L. Quan, W. I. Lipkin, R. Downing, J. W. Tappero, S. Okware, J. Lutwama, B. Bakamutumaho, J. Kayiwa, J. A. Comer, P. E. Rollin, T. G. Ksiazek, and S. T. Nichol. 2008. Newly discovered ebola virus associated with hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Uganda. PLoS Pathog 4:e1000212.


120. Lahaye, X., A. Vidy, C. Pomier, L. Obiang, F. Harper, Y. Gaudin, and D. Blondel. 2009. Functional characterization of Negri bodies (NBs) in rabies virus-infected cells: Evidence that NBs are sites of viral transcription and replication. J Virol 83:7948-7958.


121. Pratt, W. D., D. Wang, D. K. Nichols, M. Luo, J. Woraratanadharm, J. M. Dye, D. H. Holman, and J. Y. Dong. 2010. Protection of nonhuman primates against two species of Ebola virus infection with a single complex adenovirus vector. Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:572-581.


122. Saeed, M. F., A. A. Kolokoltsov, T. Albrecht, and R. A. Davey. 2010. Cellular entry of ebola virus involves uptake by a macropinocytosis-like mechanism and subsequent trafficking through early and late endosomes. PLoS Pathog 6.


123. Wauquier, N., P. Becquart, C. Padilla, S. Baize, and E. M. Leroy. 2010. Human fatal zaire ebola virus infection is associated with an aberrant innate immunity and with massive lymphocyte apoptosis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4.


124. Prins, K. C., J. M. Binning, R. S. Shabman, D. W. Leung, G. K. Amarasinghe, and C. F. Basler. 2010. Basic residues within the ebolavirus VP35 protein are required for its viral polymerase cofactor function. J Virol 84:10581-10591.


125. Simmons, G., A. J. Rennekamp, N. Chai, L. H. Vandenberghe, J. L. Riley, and P. Bates. 2003. Folate receptor alpha and caveolae are not required for Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated viral infection. J Virol. 77:13433-13438.


126. Feldmann. 2011. A new Ebola virus nonstructural glycoprotein expressed through RNA editing. J Virol 85:5406-5414.


127. MacNeil, A., E. C. Farnon, J. Wamala, S. Okware, D. L. Cannon, Z. Reed, J. S. Towner, J. W. Tappero, J. Lutwama, R. Downing, S. T. Nichol, T. G. Ksiazek, and P. E. Rollin. 2010. Proportion of deaths and clinical features in Bundibugyo Ebola virus infection, Uganda. Emerg Infect Dis 16:1969-1972. 105


128. Mbabazi, M. Nanyunja, S. Zaramba, A. Opio, J. J. Lutwama, A. O. Talisuna, and S. I. Okware. 2010. Ebola hemorrhagic fever associated with novel virus strain, Uganda, 2007-2008. Emerg Infect Dis 16:1087-1092.


129. Peterson, A. T., J. T. Bauer, and J. N. Mills. 2004. Ecologic and geographic distribution of filovirus disease. Emerg Infect Dis 10:40-47.


130. Takada, A., K. Fujioka, M. Tsuiji, A. Morikawa, N. Higashi, H. Ebihara, D. Kobasa, H. Feldmann, T. Irimura, and Y. Kawaoka. 2004. Human macrophage C-type lectin specific for galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine promotes filovirus entry. J Virol. 78:2943-2947.


131. Towner, J. S., P. E. Rollin, D. G. Bausch, A. Sanchez, S. M. Crary, M. Vincent, W. F. Lee, C. F. Spiropoulou, T. G. Ksiazek, M. Lukwiya, F. Kaducu, R. Downing, and S. T. Nichol. 2004. Rapid diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcription-PCR in an outbreak setting and assessment of patient viral load as a predictor of outcome. J Virol 78:4330-4341.


132. Sanchez, A., S. G. Trappier, B. W. Mahy, C. J. Peters, and S. T. Nichol. 1996. The virion glycoproteins of Ebola viruses are encoded in two reading frames and are expressed through transcriptional editing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 93:3602-3607.


133. Kolesnikova, L., B. Berghofer, S. Bamberg, and S. Becker. 2004. Multivesicular bodies as a platform for formation of the Marburg virus envelope. Journal of Virology. 78:12277-12287.


134. Schnittler, H. J., and H. Feldmann. 1999. Molecular pathogenesis of filovirus infections: role of macrophages and endothelial cells. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 235:175-204.


135. Jahrling, P. B., T. W. Geisbert, D. W. Dalgard, E. D. Johnson, T. G. Ksiazek, W. C. Hall, and C. J. Peters. 1990. Preliminary report: isolation of Ebola virus from monkeys imported to USA. Lancet. 335:502-505.


136. Peters, C. J., and J. W. LeDuc. 1999. An introduction to Ebola: the virus and the disease. J Infect Dis. 179 Suppl 1:ix-xvi.